POLITICAL COMMENTARY AND OPINION
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IS NOT A GENDER ISSUE AND ALL GOVERNMENTS SHOULD KNOW BETTER
Court Cases and News Stories
STUDIES AND REFERENCES EXAMINING VIOLENCE ( See Studies )
These web Sections will look at the Violence of Women
This website is raising issues and perspectives that have been ignored for much too long in Society and there are many Radical Feminist and their Government partners who don't wish the public to know or understand the issues put forth. Violence in any form on any person is wrong, whether it be on Men, Women and Children, all Violence must stop. Just as misandry the Governments of Canada put forward in the laws and in their policies must stop also.
To view violence issues from men I recommend to view this website below
"COURT'S TV CRIME LIBRARY" One of the finest websites on the Internet on crimes of violence.
Be it men or women
WARNING:Certain material on this site is graphic. It may disturb or offend some viewers. The Crime Library does not intend in any way to glorify crime or criminals. Rather, the site seeks to inform and educate the public.
On the issue of domestic violence
There is much confusion about whom to believe in the debate about spousal violence. On one side we have gender activists who rely on law enforcement statistics. On the other side we have social scientists who rely on scientifically structured studies.
Unfortunately, the results of scientific studies do not receive media attention. America's press is seemingly more interested in political correctness than scientific accuracy. Therefore, the public perception, and the perception of many well-intentioned domestic violence activists, is radically skewed away from the more balanced perception of social scientists.
Many abuse shelter personnel below the executive level are unaware of the scientific studies, even though they claim to be "domestic violence experts" and often conduct "training" sessions for government agencies. There are towns and cities in our country where the entire legal establishment, including law enforcement, family law attorneys, and judges, are making decisions about family violence based on political propaganda rather than well established research.
Ignorance on Violence is no excuse
Before 1975 the topic of domestic violence was something that few people talked about. Few people truly knew the scope of the problem, and conversation ranged from blatant hyperbole to open indifference. Silence, for the most part, was as common as ignorance.
Today that silence has largely disappeared; unless you happen to be a very specific class of victim. Furthermore, this silence is calculating, deliberate, and driven by malice.
In 1975 a team of U.S. researchers lead by Dr. Murray Straus and Richard Gelles conducted a national BOTH GENDER survey in the U.S. regarding "inter©spousal battery". The survey was anonymous, and they found that 16 percent of couples were violent toward each other, and that fewer than 1 percent fit their severe abuse criteria.
Most surprisingly they found that "women assault their partners at about the same rate as men assault their partners", including the most severe forms of abuse gathered. This latter finding was so unexpected that the researchers assumed it to be an abberation. However in 1985 a secound survey gave the same findings, and the results of both surveys were published in the 1986 August edition of the "Journal of Marriage and the Family" (vol 48). So was born the subject of the "battered husband".
One of the more well©known individuals to write on this topic was Suzanne Steinmetz, the author of the book "The Battered Husband" and one of the co©investigators of the 'First National Family Violence Survey' by Murray Straus et al. She would frequently give lectures at various universities regarding women's violence toward their spouses and, as a result, became the object of wrath of many a women's group.
When she was scheduled for a promotion, women's groups launched a letter writing campaign urging that it be denied. Other times she and her family were the object of death threats; one of the conferences she spoke at received a bomb threat.
Why, one wonders, would certain groups or individuals, within the women's movement, be so paranoid at acknowledging the fact that men, too, can be victims of battery at the hands of their wives? One theory offered is that women's groups "feared" that they would be forced to share funds allocated for shelters; however even if this were to occur, it hardly excuses their behaviour. Everyone is entitled to live a life free of violence regardless of their gender, and to have their issues equally aired and dealt with.
Just as disturbing is the willingness of governments and the media to willingly play along in this conspiracy of silence. For example, the Attorney Generals' office of B.C. has publicly stated their familiarity with all of the work done by Murray Straus, yet does not even recognize men as a significant number of victims of domestic abuse in its family violence guidelines document © named, interestingly enough, the "Violence Against Women in Relationships Outline".
The policy guideline not only ignores all of the studies showing men as half of all victims, (to which Murray Straus has stated now number no less than 70) it deliberately states the opposite. Even recent requests to have this document use "gender neutral" language were repeatedly turned down by both the office of the premier, and the attorney general.
Despite blatant sexism within the document, both the premier and the attorney general maintain that all victims are treated equally.
Likewise the media still routinely substitutes the words "women" for "victim" and "men" for "abuser" whenever they cover this topic. Media that openly acknowledge men as a substantial number of victims are by far the exception than the rule, even today.
Sadly, the result of this combined effort, be it spawned of ignorance or malice, is to further stigmatize male victims and therefore contribute to their further silent victimization. Likewise it has produced a system whereby violence by women, no matter how extreme or premeditated, is excused.
We have all witnessed the fact that even when a woman IS arrested and charged, she is far from likely to be judged or punished with the same standards that men are. We are at a place now where a woman, such as Dorothy Joudrie, can shoot her spouse in the back six times and be found "not guilty". There is not now, nor ever has been, an equivalent law for men to that of the "battered women's syndrome".
Of course none of this worries the women's groups fighting to keep the 'battered husband' in the closet, and absolve those women who do abuse. And media and government is hardly nocking down any doors to change this situation either. To one extent or another they are all co©conspirators to the silence and misinformation that plagues this entire issue. And while much of this may have been attributed to ignorance some ten years ago, it is very hard to come to that conclusion today.
Some of you may recall the David Gest/Liza Minnelli incident last fall, wherein Gest claimed that Minnelli had attacked him on numerous occasions and caused him painful and lasting neurological damage. I discussed the case along with Domestic Violence "Awareness" Month on six or seven talk shows, and several hosts and callers challenged me, doubting that a woman could or would batter her husband.
This week Gest's account was powerfully corroborated by Minnelli's former longtime chauffeur. According to the New York Post, the chauffeur "has quietly filed suit against the Oscar winner, claiming Minnelli repeatedly attacked him in alcohol-fueled rampages" which caused "personal injuries."
See Liza 'Belts' One Out <http://web.archive.org/web/20041206092435/http://www.nypost.com/news/nationalnews/29460.htm> (New York Post, 10/1/04).
There was a somewhat similar unfolding of events regarding the Tawny Kitaen/Chuck Finley case. Kitaen, an actress and model, was arrested and pled no contest to attacking her husband, baseball pitcher Chuck Finley, a couple of years ago. In September of 2003 Kitaen went on the Howard Stern Show and denied everything, claimed that she was the victim of abuse, and that she was getting railroaded.
She was criticized on the air, and she sent a letter out the next week, telling a radio host that he was wrong, irresponsible, unfair, etc. Yet Inside Edition did an interview exclusive with her shortly afterwards in which Kitaen admitted that she had attacked Finley.
Both the Minnelli and Kitaen cases bear out what addiction expert Doug Thorburn <http://web.archive.org/web/20041206092435/http://www.preventragedy.com/> has been saying for years--that drug and alcohol abuse are a large and largely ignored factor in domestic violence.
Feminist groups and the pro-feminist media are once again hyping the "lazy husband" myth. As so often happens, it's almost difficult to distinguish the mainstream media's take on this issue (see CNN's Working wives toil more than husbands <http://web.archive.org/web/20041206092435/http://money.cnn.com/2004/09/14/pf/time_use/> , 9/14/04) from those of feminist and "progressive" advocacy groups (see Women's eNews' "Men Slack off at Home"
<http://web.archive.org/web/20041206092435/http://www.workingforchange.com/article.cfm?itemid=17699> , 9/20/04, and The New Standard's First 'time use survey' reveals continued gender division of labor <http://web.archive.org/web/20041206092435/http://newstandardnews.net/content/?action=show_item&itemid=1012> , 9/20/04).
These articles are quick to point out that the study in question, the Department of Labor's American Time Use Survey <Bureau%20of%20Labor%20Statistics:%20%22American%20Time%20Use%20Survey%2522> , shows that women spend an extra hour a day on household work. However, according to a chart in the study, men spend 1.7 more hours per day on "work and work-related activities" than women do. Also, the survey does not account for the generally more demanding and hazardous nature of men's work--men comprise 95% of all workplace fatalities and the vast majority of work-related injuries.
Like the gender wage gap myth, the "women work harder" myth is a feminist staple. For example, a couple years ago the National Organization for Women declared Men's Share of Housework Remains Same Since 1985 <http://web.archive.org/web/20041206092435/http://www.now.org/eNews/march2002/031802outrage.html> in response to a new study released by the University of Michigan's Institute for Social Research. However, the study actually showed that men work as much or more hours than women overall, and that since overall housework hours has declined, men were actually doing a significantly larger percentage of the family's housework than in 1985.
This Website and web section is looking at women's violence Issues as there is very little on the internet about Women's Violence, on men or children, so this site and pages only points out issues that effect men and children when confronted with violence and what the courts give for crimes and society deals with violence issues.
SPECIAL SUNDAY MAIL REPORT:
THE FIST WIVES CLUB
Violence in the home against men soars by 81 per cent as women batter their partners
By Donna White Chief Writer
SCOTLAND has been hit by an alarming rise in domestic violence against men by WOMEN, the Sunday Mail can reveal. With girl power sending out a message that aggression is the only way to succeed, more wives and girlfriends are venting their feelings through force.
Domestic violence against men has risen 81 per cent since 1999, Scottish Executive figures reveal. The most recent figures reveal 3439 men have reported being beaten up by their partners. A spokesman said: 'Numbers have gone up due to greater awareness and reporting. But these figures are considerably under the true incidence of abuse.'
Female violent crime has also risen by 140 per cent in 10 years, according to the Executive. Women convicted for serious assault, murder and robbery more than doubled between 1993 and 2002. While there are 543 women's refuges in Britain, only three exist for men two of which opened this year. Today we reveal real stories of domestic violence against men, including: Julie Stevens, who wishes police had arrested her to stop her violent rages against a former partner. Raymond Mathieson, who was found hanged in his home after years of violence by his wife. Simon Ross, who fled to a refuge in England when first his wife, then his son, battered him. Dr Malcolm George, a retired lecturer in neuroscience, argues that male victims have always been around. He uses examples such as the actor John Wayne, beaten by his wife Conchita Martinez, and Humphrey Bogart, who was battered by his wife Mayo Methot. He added: 'It used to happen behind closed doors but it has always happened.
'Now society is putting out the message it's acceptable for women to use aggression to get what they want.' Helen Wilkinson carried out a report for the think tank Demos, in which 13 per cent of women under 24. She said: 'It's acceptable to use physical force to get something you want.' She said: 'Younger women are more assertive than previous generations. The flipside of adopting this masculine stance is they will use violence to achieve their goals.' Women are also more likely to use weapons such as knives or scissors, according to research. Stephen Fitzgerald, national co-ordinator of men's rights charity ManKind Initiative, said: 'Most male victims will not resort to physical retaliation. 'The women who attack them will trade off it, knowing if he did hit back, the authorities would be on her side.'
In 1971 Erin Pizzey, now 65, founded the first refuge for battered women. She said: 'Thirty years ago, our discussions about this issue were hijacked by the feminist movement, who insisted women were the only innocent victims. 'I was aware of another group, who were as violent as the men they'd left.' Psychologist John Archer, president of the International Society for Research on Aggression, claims women are more likely to dish out domestic violence. He added: 'The more freedom they get, the more violent they tend to become.'
JULIE: Beat up lover WATCHING her mum cower in fear from a violent boyfriend, Julie Stevens vowed she would never become some man's punchbag. But that's exactly the trap she fell into in her mid-20s. Julie, 38, said: 'I was smitten with this guy but he threw me around like a rag doll. He broke my ribs and I ended up in hospital on anti-depressants.' The relationship lasted just seven months but had a devastating effect on her next boyfriend James. During nine years together, she hit him every day. Eventually, he started fighting back. But she always threw the first punch. Julie said: 'I suppose I wanted to make sure no man got the better of me again.' Julie, of Abbeyhill, Edinburgh, cut James with a knife and bashed him with a telephone as he called police. They always lifted James, despite him saying he was the victim. Julie said: 'If someone had taken the issue seriously, I might have received help a lot quicker. My GP's solution was Prozac. But even that couldn't calm me down.' The mum-of-three saw a psychiatrist after she broke up with James. She believes parents will always encourage aggression in their kids. She said: 'You have to teach them to stand up for themselves. I tell them to hit back but never to throw the first punch.'
RAYMOND: Found hanged
RAYMOND MATHIESON was 34 when he was found hanging at his home, the final tragic escape from a violent relationship. In the years with violent wife Julie, she had poured boiling water over him, driven with him holding on to the bonnet of a car and threatened him with a pair of scissors. Yet his parents Norrie and Agnes, from Erskine, Renfrewshire, only began to piece together the catalogue of domestic violence after his death. Neighbours had found him cowering in the garden one day, saying Julie had chased him with scissors after cutting the TV wires to stop him watching a football match. Although a coroner returned a verdict of suicide, the Mathiesons have grave doubts Raymond would have taken his own life. A strapping 6ft 2in, their son had been with his wife for five years before they married in 1996. Raymond and Julie lived in Cumbria with their son, now 12, and daughter, 11. Raymond, a marine electrician, rarely spoke about the conflict but would often turn up at his parents' home telling them his wife had 'kicked off again'. Raymond himself wasn't perfect. He confessed to hitting Julie after finding her with another man and agreed to anger management counselling after she called the police. But despite a catalogue of violence aimed at Raymond, no one ever tried to make Julie, now 37, do the same. Agnes, 66, said: 'It was only about a month before he died that Ray-mond started to say things like, 'I just want a normal life, like you and dad'.'
Norrie, 65, a taxi driver, said: 'He talked about coming back up to Scotland and even enquired about jobs up here.' Raymond arrived on their doorstep to recover from the scalding. But as soon as his wife phoned, he headed back home. That was the last time his parents saw him alive. Julie's statement at Raymond's inquest revealed: 'The relationship was volatile. We were both as bad as each other. 'I really lost it and purposefully poured a kettle of boiling water over Raymond's back. I was so far out of my mind with rage that I even went back to boil another kettle full of water to do it all again.' Coroner Ian Smith said: 'He had been in this constant battle of a relationship for several years and I think he had just got to the point where he felt this was the only way out.'
SIMON: Fled to refuge
SIMON ROSS, 49, left home last Christmas after being abused by wife Debbie, 46, for 20 years. The dad-of-five, of Montrose, Angus, is now in a safe house but his ex sent him an email saying: 'We'll find and kill you.' Simon said: 'She could twist the most innocent remark into an almighty row. 'I left a few times but I loved her, so always went back. When I slept in the spare room, I barricaded the door because Debbie threatened to stab me in my sleep.' The final straw came when their 23--year-old son assaulted Simon after he gave him a row for not cleaning up in the bathroom. With help from charity, Simon who has arthritis, asthma and is on drugs for depression has found a bedsit in England.
Simon's name has been changed. mailfile
If you are a victim
Domestic abuse helpline for men or women: 0800 027 1234.
ManKind Initiative helpline: 0870 794 4124 or www.mankind.org.uk
CECIL WHIG - Maryland
May 15, 2003
"Protest raises questions about gender bias * Domestic violence staff walks out on video showing abuse of men "
State and county officials suspect gender bias after the coordinator of the
Domestic Violence Rape Crisis Center (DVRCC) and four staff members walked out of a meeting Monday before a video presentation about women who abuse men.
This web-site is raising issues and perspectives that have been ignored for much too long in Society. Violence in any form is wrong whether it be on Women or Men or Children, all Violence must stop.
An adolescent boy is forced to have sex with his social worker who later gives birth to their son.....A Texas school teacher undergoes treatment after sexually abusing one of her students....."When Girls Do It" is a 45-minute video examining the motivations of female sexual predators, the destructive effects of their actions on their victims, and the reluctance of victims to come forward.
"When Girls Do It" features compelling testimony and powerful interviews with survivors of abuse by female sexual offenders, therapists, and psychologists. The documentary delves into related issues including the long-held misconception that sexual abuse of children is exclusively a male crime.
On Spousal Homicide and the Causes of Death in Canada.
Debunking more of the lies the feminists told me.
HOW MANY WOMEN TEACHERS ARE PEDOPHILES?
Have you ever thought of the enormously popular move "Summer of 42" as a story about a pedophile? Why not? Because the pedophile in this case is a woman. The teacher in that movie repeatedly raped her student. That is a fact. But because of our inbuilt anti-male bias no one thought of that movie as portraying and glorifying a criminal. But consider what the reaction would have been had a male teacher raped his female student in a similarly presented story?
Rape of students by female teachers is slowly coming to the forefront as a very common crime. Just as child molesting priests have finally been exposed after centuries of silence, women teachers are finally beginning to be exposed for what they are. Not all women teachers, but you can bet that child rape by female teachers will be exposed as a major problem in our hate male, sexist, all women are good, all men are bad, sick society
Men are more than twice as likely to be murdered than woman and be the victims of homicides in Canada. In 1999, 363 men were murdered compared to 173 women.
Of those, 91 males died from beatings compared to just 32 women. 97 males and 47 females were stabbed, 121 men were shot versus 47 women
Over the 11 years from 1989 t0 1999 an average of 421 men and only 218 women were killed each year. Twice as many men are murdered as women. Where is the outcry? Where are the shelters, the grants and the special programs to help men?
Only in the Domestic Violence area did the number of women killed (109) exceed the number of men killed (77). However the feminists ignore the high rate of women killing men in domestic violence cases and act as if only women are the victims. Clearly they are the perpetratrors in family killings at a rate not far behind men.
Women who kill can count on getting off completely or getting substantially lower sentences than men in similar situations. So much for feminist propaganda and justice for men in Canada.
Family Violence Report
Family Violence Report - 2000 edition The Family Violence Report from Family Resources and Research has been released. It may be quoted, linked and copied without further permission.
Comparative spousal violence data from three national studies *Tables prepared using data from "Change In Spouse Assault Rates From 1975 to 1992 A Comparison of Three National Surveys In The United States", by Murray A. Straus and Glenda Kaufman Kantor.
MINOR VIOLENT ACTS SEVERE VIOLENT ACTS
1. Threw something 1. Kicked/bit/hit with fist
2. Pushed/Grabbed/Shoved 2. Hit, tried to hit with something
3. Slapped or spanked 3. Beat up
4. Threatened with gun or knife
5. Used gun or knife
Spousal assaults expressed as rate per 1000 couples
Minor Assaults Year Assault by husband Assault by wife
1975 98 98
1985 82 75
1992 92 94
1975 38 47
1985 30 43
1992 19 44
Wives report they have been severely assaulted by husband 22 per 1000
Wives report they have severely assaulted husband 59 per 1000
Husbands report they have been severely assaulted by wives 32 per 1000
Husbands report they have severely assaulted wives 18 per 1000
Husbands & wives both report wife has been assaulted 20 per 1000
Husbands & wives both report husband has been assaulted 44 per 1000
Family Resources and Research
11216 Tamiami Trail North # 223
Naples, FL 34110
A florida non-profit corporation since 1990.
Contact Rev. Sam and Bunny Sewell
Subject: Science, Politics, & Family Violence
The complete report summarizing scientific studies with complete citations is available here
From Rev. Sam and Bunny Sewell - Naples, FL
The misdiagnosis of the family-violence problem is so pervasive that churches and charities are unwittingly supporting programs that make things worse. Local governments, the courts, law enforcement, prosecutor's offices, mental-health clinics and other tax-supported agencies fund programs based on gender politics rather than responsible scientific studies.
How could we all be so mistaken about family violence? Men do not usually report their violent wives to police. Children do not usually report their violent mothers to the police. Women are far more likely to report men to the police. One study showed that only 1% of husbands, whose wives had inflicted an injury that required medical treatment, had reported the incident to police. The media usually quote statistics collected by law-enforcement agencies. The media also avoids publishing the scientific studies on family violence. Through either deliberate design or incompetence, the media has misled all of us.
Murder statistics are far more reliable than reported abuse statistics. Men and children may not report their violent spouses and mothers, but the dead bodies of children and men do get reported. Thus, the most accurate picture of family violence that can be deduced from crime statistics is to look at family homicides. The Bureau of Justice Statistics of the U.S. Department of Justice released a Special Report detailing the results of a survey of family homicides in 33 urban U.S. counties. The report covered only convictions, which should refute any contention that female-on-male family violence is almost always defensive or reactive.
The report said: "In spouse murders, women represented 41 percent of killers. In murders of their offspring, women predominated, accounting for 55 percent of killers."
"Among black marital partners, wives were just about as likely to kill their husbands as husbands were to kill their wives 47 percent of the victims of a spouse were husbands and 53 percent were wives."
This is a long, long way from the incredible claim that "men are responsible for 90% of family violence". Accurate interpretation of the police statistic would be, "Women report ninety per cent of the non-lethal family violence which is called to the attention of law enforcement agencies."
Scientists are saying that both men and women are violent to a far greater extent than police statistics reveal. The use of crime statistics would cause us to believe that such violence is rare. The picture changes, though, when social scientists look at spousal violence. This data shows that spousal violence is mostly unreported. In fact, some degree of violence occurs at a rate of 113 incidents per 1000 couples per year (husband. on wife) and 121 incidents per 1000 couples per year (wife on husband)! This is 20 times the rate of the crime statistics reports.
Many abuse shelter personnel are unaware of the scientific studies even though they claim to be "domestic violence experts" and often conduct "training" sessions for government agencies. The typical response upon first hearing the results of the scientific studies is to "shoot the messenger". Murray A. Straus, a sociologist and co-director for the Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire, blames "women in the battered [women's] shelter movement" for denying that women physically abuse husbands, ex-husbands and boyfriends, or playing down such abuse. "There's this fiction in the shelter movement that in all cases, it's him, not her" who's responsible for domestic assaults", Mr. Straus said in a recent interview.
On the other hand, some abuse agency personnel have not accepted the feminist "party line"; particularly religiously sponsored family services organizations. They are eager to have accurate information upon which to plan and implement rational programs for prevention, intervention, and treatment for abusers and victims of both genders.
Are the family violence "experts" in your community aware of the scientific studies? What is happening at the abuse shelter in your community?
We need to separate gender politics from the issue of family violence. We need to look at the full spectrum of family violence, not just female victims. We can not afford to continue avoiding the reality of violent females. We cannot hope to implement rational, solution-focused programs and policies until we face the fact that "behind closed doors" women are at least as violent as men.
Clearly these figures (listed below) show that the figures bandied about by women's groups are lies.
In his very revealing article deadly Hazards of Being Male in Canada Jeffrey Asher writes:
"The Male Death Toll
This year in Canada 15,200 more males than females will die. On almost every measure of illness, hazard,accident, and assault, thousands more males die every year. This appalling record - available for over 50 years to scholars, journalists, and politicians - remains ignored."
The article is an excellent commentary on the ignored reality if violence against men and the high price we pay for simply being men. I highly recommend that you read the piece in conjunction with the material on this page.
In 1992, one out of every 67,000* Canadian women was a victim of domestic homicide.
See Causes of Female Death
...as reported by the Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics Juristat Service Bulletin Vol. 14 No. 8, (Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, March 1994), pp. 4-5. (Distribution of Female Solved Homicide Offenses by type of Intimate Relationship 1992)In 1992, one out of every 27,000 Canadian men were homicide victims
compared to one out of every 56,000* Canadian women. See Causes of Male Death
The Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics reported (Distribution of Homicide Offenses by Gender of Victim 1961-1992)
*The difference in the two homicide figures for women appears to be between the rates for all homicides (1 in 56,000) and so called domestic homicides (1 in 67,000).
As reported in Juristat Service Bulletin Vol. 14 No. 8, firearms constitute the single most frequent means of committing spousal homicide, but do not account for the majority of all cases.
Death Statistics in Canada
Gun control supporters, particularly women's groups, are fond of saying that "a woman is killed by a firearm in Canada every five days". While this is true, it needs to be put into perspective. Note that a woman is killed in Canada because of non-firearm homicide every 2 days; because of substance abuse every 10 hours; because of accidental falls every 8 hours; because of cardiovascular disease every 14 minutes.
What is Killing Canadian Men?
Number of Deaths Cause of Death Frequency
39,290 Circulatory system diseases 1 death every 13 min.
30,481 Cancer 1 death every 17 min.
9,411 Respiratory system diseases 1 death every 56 min.
3,774 Digestive system diseases 1 death every 2 hrs.
2,923 Suicide all causes 1 death every 3 hrs.
2,376 Motor vehicle collisions 1 death every 4 hrs.
2,317 Substance abuse 1 death every 4 hrs.
1,932 Suicide, non-firearm 1 death every 5 hrs.
1,559 Mental Disorders 1 death every 6 hrs.
1,288 HIV 1 death every 7 hrs.
991 Suicide by Firearms 1 death every 9 hrs.
985 Accidental falls 1 death every 9 hrs.
528 Accidental poisoning 1 death every 16.5 hrs.
487 Homicides all causes 1 death every 18 hrs.
309 Homicide, non-firearm 1 death every 28 hrs.
178 Homicide, by firearm 1 death every 2 days
142 Homicide, by cutting/piercing
instrument 1 death every 3 days
74 Surgical/medical misadventure 1 death every 5 days
61 Fatal gun accidents 1 death every 6 days
Causes of Death 1992 (Minister of Industry, Science and Technology, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Sept. 1994); and, Method of Committing Homicide Offences, Canadian the Provinces/Territories, 1992 (Minister of Industry, Science and Technology, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 1992)
What is Killing Canadian Women?
Number of Deaths Cause of Death Frequency
36,921 Circulatory system diseases 1 death every 14 min.
25,167 Cancer 1 death every 21 min.
7,252 Respiratory system diseases 1 death every 72 min.
4,830 Breast cancer 1 death every 2 hrs.
3,450 Digestive system diseases 1 death every 3 hrs.
2,034 Mental disorders 1 death every 4 hrs.
1,153 Accidental falls 1 death every 8 hrs.
1,061 Motor vehicle collisions 1 death every 8 hrs.
844 Substance abuse 1 death every 10 hrs.
786 Suicide, all causes 1 death every 10 hrs.
727 Suicide, non-firearm 1 death every 11 hrs.
245 Homicide, all causes 1 death every 32 hrs.
198 Accidental poisoning 1 death every 2 days
176 Homicide, non-firearm 1 death every 2 days
80 Surgical/medical misadventures 1 death every 2 days
70 HIV 1 death every 5 days
69 Homicide, by firearm 1 death every 5 days
68 Homicide, by cutting/piercing
instrument 1 death every 5 days
59 Suicide, by firearm 1 death every 6 days
2 Fatal gun accidents 1 death every 183 days
Causes of Death 1992 (Minister of Industry, Science and Technology, Statistics Canada, Health Statistics Division, Sept. 1994); and, Method of Committing Homicide Offences, Canadian the Provinces/Territories, 1992 (Minister of Industry, Science and Technology, Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 1992)
A report from: Family Resources & Research
"It ain’t what ya don’t know that hurts ya. What really puts a hurtin’ on ya is what ya knows for sure, that just ain't so."
Quaeras de dubiis, legem bene discere si vis.
"Inquire into them, that's how to know what things are really true."
Why we publish this report. We are sending this report to the media, and those persons and organizations who deal with family violence, in the hope that we can correct a serious misunderstanding about this very important issue.
We want to make it clear that we have been working to end family violence for decades. One of us is an original incorporator of our local women's shelter. We were members of the "Century Club", those who contribute over $100 annually. We have sponsored benefit events for our shelter that attracted national media attention. Since we began publishing scientific studies on family violence the women’s shelter has returned our contributions. Much of the women’s shelter movement is seriously misinformed about the causes and scope of family violence. We were also seriously misinformed. We have learned a lot over the years. This misunderstanding of the family violence issue is so pervasive that city and county governments, the courts, law enforcement, prosecutor’s offices, mental health clinics, and other tax supported agencies are now funding programs based on feminist propaganda rather than responsible scientific studies.
How can this be?
Violence against family members is something women do at least as often as men! There are dozens of solid scientific studies that reveal a startlingly different picture of family violence than what we usually see in the media. For instance:
Women are three times more likely than men to use weapons in spousal violence.
Women initiate most incidents of spousal violence.
Women commit most child abuse and most elder abuse.
Women hit their male children more frequently and more severely than they hit their female children.
Women commit most child murders and 64% of their victims are male children.
When women murder adults the majority of their victims are men.
Women commit 52% of spousal killings and are convicted of 41% of spousal murders.
Eighty two percent of the general population had their first experience of violence at the hands of women.
Complete scientific citations are included in this report. Leading researchers have validated the statistics used here, "Murray Straus (a sociologist and co-director for the Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire) verified the statistics from his report . . .and Richard Gelles of the University of Rhode Island and author of Intimate Violence and other studies, also validated the statistics used by matching it to previous research." Alice Lovejoy, Brown University. "Counter Punch")
Why we don't know the truth.
How could we all be so mistaken about family violence? Have we been conned? Have we been taken in by one of the slickest "stings" ever executed? Here is how the truth has been hidden.
Misleading statistics - Men do not usually report their violent wives to police. Children do not usually report their violent mothers to the police. Women are far more likely to report men to the police. One study done of emergency room patients shows that only 1% of men who were injured by their wives reported the incident to police. That should be enough to be suspicious of police statistics on spousal violence. Some women need to call the police because there is a real need for intervention, however, there is more than one reason for a wife to report a husband.
Women are encouraged to report spousal violence by countless media reminders. Propaganda always includes the female victim and the male perpetrator. Men are discouraged from claiming to be victims of violent women.
Some wives call police because they are frightened by a minor incident. Perhaps she thought calling the police was a "trump card" in an argument. These women do not realize that with one phone call they have invited the government and feminism into their home.
Some wives make false reports because there are legal, financial, and child custody rewards for making a false report.
These factors distort police statistics beyond usefulness to anyone who is sincerely looking for the truth about family violence. Other factors also contribute to the truth being hidden and the public being "scammed".
Anti male hate groups- It suits the political agenda of feminists to quote statistics that make men look bad. Most of the feminist empire depends on their success in demonizing men. The term "family violence" is familiar to professionals and is inclusive of violent females. Feminists began to use the term "domestic violence" while quoting arrest statistics that emphasized male abusers and female victims. This was necessary so the public focus would be on the only police statistics that made their scam look believable. Con artists call this the "hook".
The Media - To make the feminist "sting" complete; the media obsequiously seeks out the women’s shelter, or another feminist source, whenever they do a story on family violence. The feminist party line gets transmitted to the public almost verbatim. Scientific studies on family violence are ignored or are deliberately censored by most of America’s media outlets.
This sting has been operating successfully for 30 years. It's time to shut it down! This misuse of distorted police statistics to push a "female victims" agenda is widespread and very misleading. Feminists have high jacked the legitimate issue of family violence and turned it into "America’s Most Successful Political Hoax".
The promotion of family violence myths and misleading statistics detracts from the importance and scope of the family violence problem. A falsely framed issue skews understanding and jeopardizes justice. For example, former Massachusetts Bar Association President Elaine Epstein stated, "It has become essentially impossible to effectively represent a man against whom any allegation of domestic violence has been made."
The other police statistics you don't hear about
Men and children may not report when they are injured by a woman, however, the dead bodies of the men and children who are the victims of violent women are usually reported. Murder statistics are far more reliable than reported abuse statistics. The Bureau of Justice Statistics released a report of family homicides in 33 urban counties. These quoted statistics represent convictions only:
"In spouse murders, women represented 41 percent of killers."
"In murders of their offspring, women predominated, accounting for 55 percent of killers."
"Among black marital partners, wives were just about as likely to kill their husbands as husbands were to kill their wives: 47 percent of the victims of a spouse were husbands and 53 percent were wives."
This is a long way from the feminist claim that "men are responsible for 90% of family violence". Those who quote law enforcement statistics to support the "male villain-female victim" dogma are either misled or deliberately attempting to mislead. We have been scammed!
The hidden victims
he scientific data shows that both men and women are violent to a far greater extent than police statistics reveal. This scientific data shows that spousal violence is mostly unreported. In fact, some degree of violence occurs at a rate of 113 incidents per 1000 couples per year (husband. on wife) and 121 incidents per 1000 couples per year (wife on husband)! The feminist's use of crime statistics to support their argument gives the misleading impression that spousal violence is rare.
Many local women's shelters emphasize female victims reported to the police, and ignore much larger numbers of women, children, and men who are also victims of family violence. I quote from a brochure from a battered women’s shelter: "What Is Domestic Violence? Domestic violence is an increasingly visible social and legal problem wherein women are abused by their partners." Notice that it doesn’t say that this is one aspect of domestic violence, or that this is the aspect that they deal with, but rather that this is domestic violence.
Surely domestic violence is violence which takes place at home, the word ‘domestic’ referring to the definition "of or relating to the household or the family". And after using ‘physical abuse’ as the topic to begin the discussion of abuse, (more accurately, "the physical abuse of women by men"), many shelter workers go on to mention all the other types of abuse men do to women, like emotional and psychological.
The conversation seldom returns to look at any type of abuse by women to men even though dozens of scientific studies indicate women are at least as violent as men in "domestic" settings. Some leaders in the women's shelter movement are fully aware of the broader scope of family violence but hold fast to the villain/victim dogma. Why? They must maintain their power and fund raising base. If they lose their special "victim status" they will rapidly go out of business. They may also be guilty of fraudulent fund raising.
Feminism Vs Science and the Law
There is much confusion about whom to believe in the debate about spousal violence. On one side we have women’s shelter advocates and feminists who rely on law enforcement statistics. On the other side we have social scientists who rely on scientifically structured studies. Unfortunately, the results of scientific studies do not receive media attention. America’s press is seemingly more interested in political correctness than scientific accuracy. Therefore, the public perception, and the perception of many well-intentioned domestic violence activists, is radically skewed away from the more balanced perception of social scientists.
Many abuse shelter personnel are unaware of the scientific studies, even though they claim to be "domestic violence experts" and often conduct "training" sessions for government agencies. How could someone be an expert without awareness of the scientific studies in their field? There are towns and cities in our country where the entire legal establishment, including law enforcement, family law attorneys, and judges, are making decisions about family violence based on political propaganda rather than well established research.
Here is a comment on the subject from a judge who asked for our report. We have rescued him from any consequences resulting from his candor by disguising his identity.
Dear Revs. Sewell
Thanks for the interesting information. I am a judge in xxxxx who regularly hears requests for domestic violence orders of protection. The DV issue has been politicized big time in our area. We judges are ordered to attend "consciousness raising" seminars where we are harangued by feminist "experts". Supervising judges have been courted and won over, and now we have annual breakfasts honoring judges who cooperate with the feminist "agenda".
As a former prosecutor and divorce lawyer I know that the best deterrent to violence by human beings is arrest, prosecution and appropriate consequences. With well-prepared cases, vigorous prosecution, and no nonsense consequences the cycle of abuse can be broken, no matter who the abuser is. Humans become habitual abusers because they get away with it. It is impossible to make progress in reducing domestic violence until we recognize that women are violent.
As a member of an advisory committee for the local shelter I was shocked at the attitudes of the ladies who ran the center: The ONLY solution championed by the shelter was to get free from that big bad male. The committee expressed concern about the underlying anti-male bias which even showed up in the name of the shelter and recommended that the name be changed to The Center for Victims of Abuse - rather than Women’s Strength.
Anyway, I forwarded your piece on to a couple of other judges - some of whom will undoubtedly immediately reject it’s premise.
Judge xxxxxx xxxxxxxxxx
The typical response of the abuse shelter feminists upon first hearing the results of the scientific studies is to "shoot the messenger". You can almost hear their minds snap closed. There is an almost cult like "party line" among victim advocates. Much of the belief system of their "cult" has no more scientific or rational basis than that of fanatical religious cults.
On the other hand, some abuse agency personnel have not accepted the feminist "party line"; particularly religiously sponsored family services organizations. They are eager to have accurate information upon which to plan and implement rational programs for prevention, intervention, and treatment for abusers and victims of both genders.
Are the family violence "experts" in your community aware of the scientific studies? What is happening at the abuse shelter in your community?
Spousal Violence in Other Countries
We think it is important to note that there have been the same kind of studies done in many countries. There is cross-cultural verification that women are more violent than men in family settings. When behavior has cross-cultural verification it means that it is part of human nature rather than a result of cultural conditioning. Females are most often the perpetrators in spousal violence in most cultures that have been studied to date. That leads many professionals to conclude that there is something biological about violent females in family situations. Researchers are now exploring the role of the "territorial imperative" as a factor in women’s violence against men. Women see the home as their territory. Like many other species on the planet, we humans will ignore size difference when we experience conflict on our own territory. So, the scientific results that reveal the violence of American women are not unique to our culture, and do not indicate a special pathology among American women. World wide, women are more violent than men in family settings.
One of the leading researchers in this field is Susan Steinmetz, Ph.D. She did a cross-cultural comparison of marital abuse published in Journal of Sociology, and Social Welfare, entitled "Married Couples from 9 Different Cultures". These cross-cultural studies yielded results very similar to family violence studies done in the United States and other nations. Another survey of couples in Canada found the same familiar pattern in that the rate of severe husband-to-wife violence was 4.8%, while severe wife-to-husband violence was 10%. Brinkerhoff & Lupri, Canadian Journal of Sociology, (1989)
The Propaganda Problem
Abuse shelter advocates and feminists have severely distorted the picture and deliberately produce fraudulent statistics and dis-information. Even when they quote well-grounded statistics, they misuse the information. Here is an example: One of the favorite statistics quoted by abuse shelter advocates is that a woman is the victim of spousal violence every 15 seconds. This statistic is deduced from a well conducted piece of research which was published in the Journal of Marriage and Family, a respected professional journal for marriage and family therapists. The Abuse Shelter advocates arrived at this figure by using one of the conclusions of the study, i.e.; 1.8 million women suffer an assault from a husband or boyfriend per year. What abuse shelter advocates always fail to report is another finding of the same study, i.e.; 2 million men are assaulted by a wife or girl friend per year, which translates as, a man is the victim of spousal violence every 14 seconds. This is typical of the wide spread deception practiced by abuse shelter advocates. America’s press establishment is a party to this deception, and shares the blame for exacerbating the problem by helping to perpetuate a false diagnosis.
"Knowing what we know, what then must we do?" Leo Tolstoy
Acknowledging that women are abusers leads to better solutions.
Women usually initiate spousal violence episodes (they hit first), and women hit more frequently, as well as using weapons three times more often then men. This combination of violent acts means that efforts to find solutions to the family violence problem need to include appropriate focus on female perpetrators. We need to recognize that women are violent, and we need nationwide educational programs that portray women as perpetrators. Other studies show that men are becoming less violent at the same time that women are becoming more violent. Educating men seems to be working. Educating women to be less violent should now be the main thrust of public education programs.
Any family violence program which accepts the "male abuser - female victim" paradigm is based on a false premise. These kind of family violence programs actually perpetuate the problem of abuse and do not deserve to be supported by private citizens or government agencies. Many government agencies, and legitimate charities, have been funding a feminist political cause, rather than funding rational, solution focused, family violence prevention and treatment programs. What kind of family violence program do you have in your community? Does your local program encourage the healing of families, or do they take the "divorce" approach? Does the family violence prevention program in your community devote as much attention to violent females, as it does to violent males? If not, why not?
Women’s shelters are usually feminist front organizations. We need a family-friendly agency in our community that delivers services to all family members and works to preserve families, not tear them apart. We don’t need a feminist group with an anti-male, anti-family political ax to grind.
We need to separate gender politics from the issue of family violence. We need to look at the full spectrum of family violence, not just female victims. We need to consult scientific studies when we make policy decisions. We cannot hope to implement rational, solution-focused programs and policies until we face the fact that "behind closed doors" women are at least as violent as men.
What can I do personally?
Be informed. Educate yourself about the scientific studies on family violence.
Copy and distribute reports from Family Resources and Research. We will provide you with solid research and show you how to conduct an effective family violence education program in your community (See the contact information below)
Please do your part to strengthen and heal America's families. Thank you for giving your attention to this important issue.
Revs. Sam and Bunny Sewell
Family Resources and Research
11216 Tamiami Trail North Ste. 223
Naples, FL 34110
A Florida non-profit corporation since 1990
Comparative spousal violence data from three national studies*
*Tables prepared using data from "Change In Spouse Assault Rates From 1975 to 1992: A Comparison
of Three National Surveys In The United States", by Murray A. Straus and Glenda Kaufman Kantor.
MINOR VIOLENT ACTS: SEVERE VIOLENT ACTS:
1. Threw something1. Kicked/bit/hit with fist
2. Pushed/Grabbed/Shoved2. Hit, tried to hit with something
3. Slapped or spanked3. Beat up
4. Threatened with gun or knife
5. Used gun or knife
Spousal assaults expressed as rate per 1000 couples
Minor Assaults:Year Assault by husbandAssault by wife
Wives report they have been severely assaulted by husband22 per 1000
Wives report they have severely assaulted husband59 per 1000
Husbands report they have been severely assaulted by wives32 per 1000
Husbands report they have severely assaulted wives18 per 1000
Husbands & wives both report wife has been assaulted20 per 1000
Husbands & wives both report husband has been assaulted44 per 1000
The study below is typical of the results of scientific studies on family violence done
in many nations. This Canadian study was done by Reena Sommer, Ph.D. a research
associate with the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy and Evaluation.
Female vs. male perpetrated violence as a percentage of all respondents:
Minor Violence% of females% of males
threw an object (not at partner)23.615.8
threaten to throw object14.97.3
threw object at partner16.24.6
pushed, or grabbed19.817.2
slapped, punched, kicked15.87.3
Violence as self defense9.914.8
My partner needed medical help14.321.4
More citations of scientific studies included after News Clips & e-mail responses
Below are some exceptions to the usual media silence on science based stories on family violence.
Spouse Abuse a Two-Way Street By Warren Farrell, Ph.D. USA Today June 29, 1994
Just as bad cases make bad laws, so can celebrity cases reinforce old myths. The biggest myth the O.J. Simpson case is likely to reinforce is the myth that domestic violence is a one way street (male-to-female), and its corollary, that male violence against women is an outgrowth of masculinity.
When I began seven years of research into these issues in preparation for "The Myth of Male Power", I began with these two assumptions since I had been the only man in the United States to have been elected three times to the Board of Directors of the National Organization of Women in New York City, and these assumptions went unquestioned in feminist circles.
My first finding - that in the U.S. and Canada more than 90% of the domestic violence reports to the police were by women, not men - seemed to confirm these assumptions. But, then the picture became more complex. About a dozen studies in the U.S. and Canada asked BOTH sexes how often they hit each other, all of them found that women hit men either more frequently or about as often as the reverse.
Two of the main studies - by Suzanne Steinmetz, Murray Straus and Richard Gelles - assumed men hit women more severely, so they divided domestic violence into seven different levels of severity. They were surprised to discover that, overall, the more severe levels of violence were conducted more by women against men.
A caveat, though. Men hitting women did more damage than the reverse. However, this caveat carried its own caveat: it was exactly because men’s hits hurt more that women resorted to more severe methods (i.e. tossing boiling water over her husband or swinging a frying pan into his face). These findings were supported by the Census Bureau’s own survey: As early as 1977, the U.S. Census Bureau conducted the National Crime Survey, surveying 60,000 households every six months for three and one half years. They found women use weapons against men 82% of the time; men use weapons against women 25% of the time. Overall, they found that even the women acknowledged they hit men more than men hit women.
The key issue, though, is who initiates this cycle of violence. Steinmetz, Strauss and Gelles found to their initial surprise that women are more likely to be the first initiators. Why? In part, the belief that men can take it - - they can therefore be a punching bag and not be expected to hit back.
I was still a bit incredulous. I asked thousands of men and women in my workshops to count all the relationships in which they had hit their partner before their partner had ever it them. and vice versa. About 60% of the women acknowledged they had more often been the first to strike a blow: among the men, about 90% felt their female partner had been the first to strike a blow.
I still felt violence was an out growth of masculinity. I was half right. Men are responsible for most of the violence which occurs outside the home. However, when 54% of women in lesbian relationships acknowledge violence in their current relationship, vs. only 11% of heterosexual couples reporting violence, I realized that domestic violence is not an outgrowth of male biology.
Why do we vigorously denounce domestic violence against women and not even know about domestic violence against men?
Women Abuse Men: It’s More Widespread Than People Think
Excerpt from Special supplement to The Washington Post, December 28, 1993 By Armin A. Brott. M.D.
"Despite all the evidence about female-on-male violence, many groups actively try to suppress coverage of the issue. Steinmetz received verbal threats and anonymous phone calls from radical women’s groups threatening to harm her children after she published "The Battered Husband Syndrome" in 1978. She says she finds it ironic that the same people who claim that women- initiated violence is purely self defense are so quick to threaten violence against people who do nothing more than publish a scientific study.
Steinmetz’s story is not unique. Ten years after that study, R.L. McNeely, a professor at the School of Social Welfare at the University of Wisconsin, and Gloria Robinson-Simpson published "The Truth About Domestic Violence: A Falsely Framed Issue." The article examined various studies on domestic violence and concluded that society must recognize that men are victims "or we will be addressing only part of the phenomenon."
Shortly thereafter, McNeely received letters from a Pennsylvania women’s organization threatening to use its influence in Washington to pull his research funding. Robinson-Simpson, who uncovered some of the most important data, largely was left alone. According to McNeely, "she, a young assistant professor, was assumed to have been ‘duped" by the senior male professor." (end quote)
Researcher Claims Abuse Shelter Advocates Make the Problem Worse
Washington Times Jan 31, 1994, Joyce Price
Murray A. Straus, a sociologist and co-director for the Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire, blames "women in the battered [women’s] shelter movement" for denying that women physically abuse husbands, ex-husbands and boyfriends, or playing down such abuse. "There’s this fiction in the shelter movement that in all cases, it’s him, not her" who’s responsible for domestic assaults", Mr. Straus said in a recent interview. Mr. Straus said that at least 30 studies of domestic violence - including some he’s conducted - have shown both sexes to be equally culpable. But he said some of the research, such as a recent Canadian national survey, "left out data on women abusing men ... because it’s politically embarrassing." Women and men "are almost identical" in terms of the frequency of attacks such as slapping, shoving, and kicking, Mr. Straus said.
Using information on married couples obtained from 2,994 women in the 1985 National Family Violence Survey, Mr. Straus said he found a rate for assaults by wives of 124 per 1,000 couples, compared with 122 per 1,000 for assaults by husbands.
The rate of minor assaults by wives was 78 per 1,000 couples, and the rate of minor assaults by husbands was 72 per 1,000, he said. For the category of severe assaults, he said, the rate was 46 per 1,000 couples for assaults by wives and 50 per 1,000 for assaults by husbands. "Neither difference is statistically different,"* Mr. Straus wrote in the journal Issues in Definition and Measurement. "As these rates are based exclusively on information provided by women respondents, the near equality in assault rates cannot be attributed to a gender bias in reporting." (end quote)
*Dr. Straus’s statistics do not reflect the latest study done by the Family Research Laboratory.
Claims of husband-beating gain prominence
by Alice Lovejoy - Brown University October 1997
October 1 marks the beginning of Domestic Abuse Awareness Month. Though most people believe this issue to be one-sided, there are forces at work attempting to modify common perceptions of domestic abuse. Armed with scientific data and polls, a select group of private individuals, as well as publicly funded researchers, purport that men are the victims of physical domestic abuse at rates equal to or even greater than women. For every Wilfredo Cordero, the Boston Red Sox player recently accused of assaulting his wife, these factions claim there is a woman somewhere slapping her husband.
Sam and Bunny Sewell
Two main proponents of this uncharted attitude towards domestic abuse are Sam and Bunny Sewell. The couple, from Naples, Florida, runs the "Best Self Clinic," a group which provides counseling to couples. In the course of their work, the Sewells found an unusually large number of cases in which domestic violence was initiated by women. The couple, in the clinic’s web page, explores the distinction between "LOVE" ("non-possessive and admiring") and "love" (a kind of attachment which denotes a "lack of emotional self-sufficiency"). In relation to their concept of "LOVE" as a solution to domestic problems, and in support of the idea that violence in relationships must stem from a lack of "LOVE," the Sewells have attempted to publicize the supposedly forgotten half of domestic abuse, that directed by women against men.
Sam and Bunny, in a mass e-mailing to various news organizations, quote Change in Spouse Abuse Rates from 1975 to 1992: A Comparison of Three National Surveys, a study by Murray A. Straus and Glenda Kaufman Kantor of the University of New Hampshire’s Family Research Laboratory. The study found that, per 1,000 couples, 92 reported minor assaults such as pushing, grabbing and slapping, by the husband. Surprisingly, though, the study reported a rate of 94 minor assaults by the wife. 19 couples reported severe assaults such as kicking, biting, punching, or using a gun or knife, by the husband. Yet 44 couples reported severe assault by the wife, meaning that women are perpetrators of the crime at more than twice the rate of their male counterparts.
"The Men’s Issues Page" quotes a 1989 study in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, "Prevalence and Stability of Physical Aggression Between Spouses" that found that women were, overall, more often the aggressor in relationships than men. In unmarried couples, 31.2% of men and 44.4% of women had engaged in aggressive behavior. After eighteen months of marriage, these statistics changed to 26.8% of men and 35.9% of women. After twenty months of marriage, the numbers decreased to 24.6% and 32.2%, but maintained the notable discrepancy. Further, this study found that "the lower rates of overall aggression for men were not offset by higher rates of more severe type of aggression." The same page uses a third study, The Marriage License as Hitting License: A Comparison of Assaults in Dating, Cohabiting and Married Couples which states similar findings showing that women are more often the aggressor in a marriage.
Lash or backlash
In contrast to the vocal advocacy for battered women, claims that men are often the victims of domestic abuse are likely to be dismissed as a mere backlash against today’s "politically-correct" sensibilities. Yet the data about husband-beating is, to a large degree, valid. Murray Straus verified the statistics from his report printed by "Sam and Bunny" and Richard Gelles of the University of Rhode Island and author of Intimate Violence and other studies, also validated the statistics used by matching it to previous research. In fact, Gelles’ most recent research supported his earlier data in finding that, in a quarter of domestic relationships, violence is exclusively male against female. In a second quarter of these relationships, violence is exclusively female against male. In the remaining half, violence is bi-directional, with an equal likelihood of initiation from either men or women. Yet anecdotal evidence on the part of women’s groups and police blotters suggests that the numerous studies detailing female violence are wrong or exaggerated. Domestic violence advocacy groups claim that most violence by women against men can be explained by examining the context of the violence; that it is, to a large degree, in reaction to violence or threats that women use violence against their spouse or partner. Deb de Bare, of the Rhode Island Coalition Against Domestic Violence, stated "from our perspective, research is often misleading. This is an example of exactly that. Research might interpret the number of times someone was hit, but may not get the context. Women might react and slap, and the research would document that as abuse. The reality that we see is that well over ninety percent of cases of domestic violence involve women as victims. We see domestic abuse as the whole pattern of behavior in an abusive relationship." Gelles would argue, however, that women’s violence cannot be attributed to only self-defense in such a large percentage of cases. Domestic violence, like any form of abuse, is often a learned behavior. Victims of child abuse are more likely to abuse both their own children and their spouse or partner. Violence, to victims of abuse, is a way of expressing anger, which becomes a normalized means to interact with one’s partner. This is not to undermine the number of cases in which violence is a direct reaction to threats or aggression; these cases address an issue critical in the problem of violent relationships in general.
Looking in the mirror
The difficulty in assigning blame for domestic violence is evident in Gelles’ study of unmarried college-age heterosexual couples. In these relationships, violence is perfectly symmetrical between men and women. Gelles termed these "modern aggressive relationships": anger is translated as verbal or physical abuse. Though these relationships are just as violent as "traditional" cases of domestic violence, they receive little attention; abuse has become an accepted part of relationships between men and women of this age group. The violence of this particular portion of abuse came to the fore recently when last month a woman at the University of Michigan was killed by her own boyfriend, stabbed repeatedly by a kitchen knife. Claiming that "nobody wants to present the balanced view," Gelles is dismayed that statistical ‘facts’ are ceaselessly debated over while the victims of abuse gain little. Rhode Island, for instance, has standards for treating victims of domestic abuse which dictate a certain number of weeks for treatment, as well as a standardized and specific treatment content. In Gelles’ opinion, these standards are "guaranteed to be ineffective" because they do not examine specific cases or situations of abuse. Thus, individuals with violent childhood experiences, though "treated", return to relationships only to maintain a previous pattern of abuse.
Proponents of the husband-beating statistics see identity politics as an impediment to the eradication of violence in the home. Sam Sewell asserted that "a solution to [the domestic violence] problem requires that gender politics be excluded." Gelles agreed, arguing that the only remedy to domestic abuse will come when advocates use "informed scientific judgment" to determine treatment standards, and when the focus of the domestic violence debate shifts from a search for the "real" victims to a search for a solution.
Domestic abuse: It’s not always his fault
Scripps Howard News Service 8/18/97 by Betsy Hart
Not long ago members of Virginia’s General Assembly considered a bill meant to keep husbands from abusing their wives: putting a warning label at the top of marriage licenses! It didn’t get far. (Possibly calmer heads prevailed and pointed out that it’s non marital relationships that are a major risk factor for abuse.)
Still, this attempt highlights the prevailing notion in domestic violence circles that "it’s always his fault." That, in fact, is the title of the cover article in the summer issue of "The Women’s Quarterly, " published by the Independent Women’s Forum, an increasingly high-profile group that’s kind of an antidote to the National Organization for Women.
Author Sally L. Satel, psychiatrist and Yale medical school lecturer, shows how accepted Gloria Steinem’s assertion that "the patriarchy requires violence in order to maintain itself" has become. I.e., abusive men aren’t criminals, or drunks, or particularly troubled people some of whom may be redeemed. They are just men.
The Chicago Metropolitan Battered Women’s Network explains: "Battery is a fulfillment of cultural expectation, not a defiant or sick behavior." This view pervades the activist groups dealing with this issue, and the bureaucracies that fund them with federal dollars.
Today a dozen states basically preclude treatment other than feminist therapy of domestic batterers, Satel notes, and more are following. Forget joint counseling when appropriate and desired. Involving the batterer’s mate in treatment amounts to "blaming the victim .
That, despite the fact that many abuse experts unhindered by feminist blinders recognize abuse is often part of a "dance of mutual destructiveness" as psychologist Judith Shervin writes. And that women initiate violence in cohabiting relationships as often as men (often using weapons to make up for physical differences) according to leading abuse researchers-widely respected across philosophical lines - Richard Gelles and Murray Straus.
No matter. "Don," a college administrator arrested for once slapping his wife (they are still together) was required to attend a typical "abuse" program. Every week "the message was clear," Don told Satel. "Whatever she does to you is your fault, whatever you do to her is your fault. It would have been a lot more helpful if they taught us to recognize when we felt ourselves being driven into a position where we lash out. The message should have been "recognize it, deal with it, and quit hitting." All Don got was guilt about his maleness.
Hand in hand with this agenda are feminist backed "must arrest" and similar legal policies which exist in hundreds of jurisdictions. These require police to arrest one partner-almost always the man-when called to a domestic dispute. Even when things have completely cooled down, there was no hitting, and the woman doesn’t want the man arrested.
Common "no-drop" polices do not allow a woman to drop abuse charges once they’re filed, even if her motive was anger, not fear. In California, it is mandatory for judges to issue a restraining order separating the parties in all domestic violence cases.
Such practices treat women like children, and ensure that if couples stay together-and most in fact do-nothing really changes, Satel writes, though the woman might mistakenly and dangerously be led to believe it has. While there is virtually no convincing data that this feminist approach to male violence is effective, Satel notes, several respected studies suggest that these typical legal practices can escalate spousal violence in some men by further enraging them.
The goal of these feminist treatments and legal responses, Satel says, is to separate women from their abusive partner -no matter what the circumstances, and no matter how fervently the women wish otherwise.
These "one size fits all" policies might make a bit more sense if "abuse" always meant serious, systematic violence. But the feminist politicization of the term "abuse" renders it virtually meaningless. A typical check-list, this from the Westchester Coalition of Family Violence agencies, tells women that if their partner behaves in "an overprotective manner," "turns minor incidents into major arguments" or "insults you," then "you might be abused."
Sometimes, of course, no redemption is possible, and leaving, or ensuring the violent spouse is locked up (preferably for good), is the only answer. And Satel rightly notes that the feminist agenda in this area has forced law enforcement to take domestic abuse seriously.
But once again, the radical feminist agenda of "man bad woman good" has permeated the culture on an a fundamentally important issue, and once again it has done a terrible disservice to the constituency feminists are supposed to help-women.
Betsy Hart, a former White House spokesman, is a weekly commentator on MS-NBC television news.
Sample of e-mail responses to our National Domestic Violence Education Project
(some edited to preserve privacy)
Sam and Bunny:
I very much appreciate your update. Your work is very important in the never ending battle for fairness
among the sexes in our Courts. These reports are so packed with data and information, that they simply
cannot be disputed.
Robert SpeerAttorney Atlanta, GA
Dear Sam & Bunny
The info you provide is compelling. This is particularly so to one such as I who, as an ex-cop, recognizes the under-reporting of "female on male" violence as a consequence of "macho image protection." Similarly, husbands were (as I remember my limited experiences) more inclined to claim "innocent" causes of injuries to children when they had been committed by the wife than was the case when the situation was reversed and the batterer was the husband.
Keep up the good work.
high school teacher./ex-cop
Dear Sam and Bunny
I absolutely loved your M.A.L.E. web page!! It is positively the greatest thing on the internet today.
As a white male, I have been portrayed as the root of all evil. I was responsible for the war in Vietnam. I was responsible for the plight of blacks and other people of color. I was to blame for the miseries of women. I alone, bore the burden of polluting the planet.
While all this was going on, I was working as many jobs as I could so that I could go full time to college. I got married and worked 60+ hours a week just to keep our heads above water. I don’t ever remember oppressing anyone. I was too busy working and studying to do that. I could never figure out why I was the bad guy, when I was working so hard to keep a wife, a child, and myself out of poverty.
While it is true I will never be a woman, I have a wife. I have a mother. I have sisters. I have many friends who are women. I work with lots of women. I do not have a daughter but if I did, I would love her very much. To suggest that women’s issues are not important to me (such as breast cancer) is to be extremely misleading. I want my wife and the women in my life to be treated with respect. I want them to have equal pay for equal work and a turn at bat.
But unfortunately, there seems to be some groups out there who insist upon portraying women as victims. Who seem intent on portraying men and women as enemies. But as long as there are courageous, truth telling Americans, such as yourself, the world will be a better place.
You can bet I will pass this information on to my sociology students.
Many thanks, sincerely
Prof. of Sociology
Note from a professional who is doing "family friendly" domestic violence counseling
Subject: Domestic Violence Programs and Native Americans - Not PC Enough
It is extremely refreshing to see a balance reached in the field of domestic abuse, i.e., that violence is more or less equal between men and women.
I operate a Domestic Violence program for couples only (Native in orientation and philosophy) in Terrace, B.C. Out of 126 people involved in our program we found the violence to be mutual both in degree and numbers. We have also faced serious opposition from a small but vocal group of non-native women over the last five years. We have found that it is almost impossible to attain funding for our native programs because our traditional values towards families are not politically correct, i.e., they are family orientated. Our solutions to family violence are based on both people taking full responsibility for their behaviour, and not to fall into the "Blame Game." Unfortunately, current non-native approaches to family violence appear to be based on male-bashing, rather than healing relationships between people. We estimate that we have had about a 95% success rate to date. We do continuous follow-ups with our couples.
Maurice L.B. Oates Jr., M.A (Ya’-ga-hlo’o)
First of all, I'm sorry for my bad English...
I have received your article "Facts About Domestic Violence You Will Not See In The Media"; thank you!
I have published your article on the pages of my family law internet magazine, and it was liked to many readers.
I like also receive other your articles, for the same matter.
Italian Family Law Attorney
Dear Sam & Bunny
I couldn’t have said it better myself.... I have a male friend who has been fighting a domestic violence charge for almost 2 years. (Let met state here that I have never considered myself a feminist, for the very reasons stated in your article. Equality I believe, but not unfair advantage) It wasn’t until my friend shared his current dilemma that I realized how unjust and unfair and biased our entire society has become. He has personally seen documentation of the anti male bias in domestic court. His rights have been repeatedly violated. Everyone assumes that he must be guilty...he’s a man, of course.
He has a vast amount of documentation in favor of his innocence and proof of numerous injustices by law enforcement, the courts and judicial system.
We would love to speak to you in more detail. And, we are extremely interested in any solutions, suggestions or assistance you, or others like you might be able to offer.
Please respond quickly.
Real Estate Agent in California
Dear Best Self USA
Though I can imagine the vitriolic responses you’re getting, I > appreciate receiving your message. While I don’t have the knowledge to assess its accuracy, I don’t doubt that it is factual. I run one of the web’s major legal info site, The Lectric Law Library, with 12,000+ hits a day and would like to post the message in appropriate areas of the Library.
Is this OK? If so, is it OK to leave your names/e-mail address intact, or would you prefer to remain anonymous?
"Best legal resource that we have come across on the Web" - CNN
"The most complete law library on the Web" - Point Reviews
Dear Best Self Clinic,
I am the editor of the xxxxx Family Law REPORTER published by a leading legal
publisher, "Butterworths". This publication is a monthly digest of case law and
commentary. Its subscribers exceed 400 and are largely Canadian family
law practitioners and judges and a number of adjunct helping professionals.
> (court appointed clinical assessors etc.) County libraries and law schools > subscribe as well. I would like to consider publishing your "Facts About > Domestic Violence You Will Not See...". Please let me know if I have your > authority to do so. We can not offer any remuneration, nor have we at any time > in the past for any of the commentaries or monographs that are prepared and > published. Thank you.
Family Law Journal Editor
Thank you very much for your report. I represent many men accused of family violence and victimized by the very misunderstanding you are trying to correct.
Thank you for sharing the research with me. You must have read my column on alleged gender bias in schools. Did you see it in the xxxxxx Sun or in the xxxxxx News? It’s interesting that Ms. Sommers in Canada has the same name as Professor Christina Hoff Sommers, from whose book "Who Stole Feminism" I got most of my data for the column. Christina Sommers is a professor of philosophy at Clark University in Massachusetts. If you haven’t read her book, I recommend you check it out. It points out much of the same kinds contradictions mentioned in the research you sent.
Dear Sam & Bunny,
Thank you for the information on Domestic Violence. I found your research thought-provoking and informative. Your viewpoint is very interesting, and I will take the information provided in serious consideration when dealing with this very important issue.
Prosecuting Attorney Michigan
Dear Sam & Bunny Sewell,
I saw your article in The ‘Lectric Law Library™ -- http://www.lectlaw.com—and I wonder if you could help with a project that is going here in Canada.
There is a group called NAANCP (National Association for the Advancement of Non-Custodial Parents) that is trying to organize statistical information on family issues. I would like to forward your material to them, especially if you have a fully-cited version.
A "Father’s Shelter" for abused dads and kids is an initiative we are considering in the group that I represent (HEART), so we have a natural interest in the scholarly case.
I don’t know where you are geographically, but cooperation may be possible, regardless.
Thanks for your article.
Dear Mr. and Ms. Sewell:
I finally completed my reading of your information. Thank you again for sending me the two e-mails about anti-male bias. You’ve done a great job of compiling relevant data and opinions. I sent e-mail to the Compuserve address at the tail end of the second message. If that’s just another one of your addresses, please excuse any redundancy, but I do want you to know that I support your efforts to get out these facts. For too long, the militant feminists have held sway in the so-called Truth department, and the point made about young males growing up into a self-image of being part of a legacy of shameful behavior toward women is right on the money. I watched that happen with my own older son (now 18).
Dear Sam & Bunny
Thanks for your interesting take on the domestic violence situation. As a news organization with a large number of students in family housing, UHN takes note of situations which can affect those students. I have forwarded your message to this year’s news director for his consideration as a story idea on UHN’s television newscasts. Thanks again for your input in this situation.
Jackie Steele, Webmaster, UHNter@ctive
Dear Sam & Bunny
Thank you for your e-mail on domestic violence. We just ran a cover story on crime on campus, and one of the violent crimes on the rise is domestic violence. I would be interested in receiving a copy of the full report. Can I just send this e-mail for my request or do you need us to write to you in Naples? Thanks in advance for your reply, and I look forward to hearing you soon. Campus Chief of Police, Wilson Petri
Dear Revs. Sewell
Well written. I've added your article at:
Rod Van Mechelen
Publisher: The Backlash! http://web.archive.org/web/20041206092435/http://www.backlash.com/
Dear Sam & Bunny
Thank you for posting your article re domestic violence. I am doing a paper for my English class and your point of view (i.e., that domestic violence is a two-way street) is exactly the point I am trying to demonstrate in an argument paper. One thing I am adding that I have not seen much written about is the connection between children who were abused and abusive spouses. That is, children who are hit in anger (and I don't mean a swat on the bottom) are being taught to do the same when they are older: to hit when they are frustrated or angry. So often I see on TV the very women who are teaching their children to abuse others complaining of domestic abuse. Apparently no one has made enough of a connection to realize what an enormous problem it is (similar to discussing the elephant's tail, not realizing it is connected to the rest of the elephant!). As you might guess, I have seen the connection firsthand, which is why I wanted to thank you for the work you are doing in helping to educate and hopefully stop this in our lifetime. Take care. Student
Your letter is fascinating - although I'm not completely surprised.
I've noticed over the years in my ministry that in family violence cases,
as the discussions progressed, I realized the woman was most often at least
as violent as the man!
I would like to have a copy of the complete report, if you could
get that to me. Clergyman
Some Technical Aspects of Studies of Family Violence
Spousal Abuse Rates - Stats from UCR and Straus, Gelles \
The data from the US National Crime Survey (NCS) states that 84% of the victims of "intimate" violence were female. ("Highlights from 20 years of Surveying Crime Victims", NCJ-144525.) It also puts the occurrence of this violent crime (from "intimates only") at 5.4 female victims per 1000 women per year - this is all crimes, many of which did not involve injury.
For comparison, the rate for "Accidental injury, all circumstances" is given as 220 per 1000 adults per year - a figure 40 times higher.
If one accepts data such as that from the NCS, one must (at least if one is consistent and intellectually honest) admit that such violence is rare. The picture changes, though, when different techniques of investigation (methodologies) are used, such as those by Straus, and Gelles. This data shows that domestic violence is MUCH more common. In fact, some degree of violence (NOT injury, however) occurs at a rate of 113 incidents per 1000 couples per year (husband. on wife) and 121 incidents per 1000 couples per year (wife on husband)! This is 20x the rate that the NCS reports.
Family Homicides - rates by gender - DoJ, 94
In July 1994 the Bureau of Justice Statistics of the U.S. Department of Justice released a Special Report detailing the results of a survey of family homicides in 33 urban U.S. counties. The report covered ONLY convictions, which should respond to any contention that female-on-male family violence is almost always reactive. The report said:
"A third of family murders involved a female as the killer. In sibling murders, females were 15 percent of killers, and in murders of parents, 18 percent. But in spouse murders, women represented 41 percent of killers. In murders of their offspring, women predominated, accounting for 55 percent of killers."
"Among black marital partners, wives were just about as likely to kill their husbands as husbands were to kill their wives: 47 percent of the victims of a spouse were husbands and 53 percent were wives."
U.S. Department of Justice
Conflict Tactics Scales
To give a little background on how the rates of violence were determined, by Straus, and Gelles, We include the following question from the published survey for the CTS methodology:
No matter how well a couple gets along, there are times when they disagree, get annoyed with the other person, or just have spats or fights because they’re in a bad mood or tired or for some other reason. They also use many different ways of trying to settle their differences. I’m going to read some things that you and your spouse might do when you have an argument. I would like you to tell me how many times in the last 12 months you:
a. Discussed the issue calmly
b. Got information to back up your side of things
c. Brought in or tried to bring in someone to help settle things
d. Insulted or swore at the other one
e. Sulked and/or refused to talk about it
f. Stormed out of the room or house (or yard)
h. Did or said something to spite the other one
i. Threatened to hit or throw something at the other one
j. Threw or smashed or hit or kicked something
k. Threw something at the other one
l. Pushed, grabbed, or shoved the other one
m. Slapped the other one
n. Kicked, but, or hit with a fist
o. Hit or tried to hit with something
p. Beat up the other one
q. Threatened with a knife or gun
Used a knife or gun
To summarize, Straus & Gelles, using the CTS methodology described above found that rates for total (including less severe violence, such as pushing and shoving) between husbands and wives are quite close) for husbands and wives, with one survey showing husbands as more violent and the other with wives as more violent .
Other data, however indicates that the gender of the striker of the first blow is fairly uniform. Jan. E States and Murray A Straus, "Gender Differences in Reporting Marital Violence and It’s Medical and Psychological Consequences", ch 9 in Straus & Gelles Physical Violence in American Families quote the following: Men claimed they struck the first blow in 44% of the cases, their female partners in 44% of the cases, and "couldn’t remember" in 12% of the cases. The women claimed men hit them first in 43% of the cases, that they struck the first blow in 53% of the cases, and "couldn’t remember" in 5% of the cases. However, data for injury rates based on these studies shows women seeking treatment for a doctor much more often than men did. In a study of 8145 families 7.3% of 137 women severely assaulted (i.e. 10 out of 137) and 1% of 95 men severely assaulted (i.e 1 out of 95) men asked to see a doctor.
Spousal Violence Scientific Research Citations
References Examining Assaults by Women on Their Spouses or Male partners
An Annotated Bibliography
SUMMARY: This bibliography examines 95 scholarly investigations, 79 empirical studies and 16 reviews and/or analyses, which demonstrate that women are as physically aggressive, or more aggressive, than men in their relationships with their spouses or male partners. The aggregate sample size in the reviewed studies exceeds 60,000.
Aizenman, M., & Kelley, G. (1988). The incidence of violence and acquaintance rape in dating relationships among college men and women. Journal of College Student Development, 29, 305-311. (A sample of actively dating college students <204 women and 140 men> responded to a survey examining courtship violence. Authors report that there were no significant differences between the sexes in self reported perpetration of physical abuse.)
Archer, J., & Ray, N. (1989). Dating violence in the United Kingdom: a preliminary study. Aggressive Behavior, 15, 337-343. (Twenty three dating couples completed the Conflict Tactics scale. Results indicate that women were significantly more likely than their male partners to express physical violence. Authors also report that, "measures of partner agreement were high" and that the correlation between past and present violence was low.)
Arias, I., Samios, M., & O’Leary, K. D. (1987). Prevalence and correlates of physical aggression during courtship. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 2, 82-90. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale with a sample of 270 undergraduates <95 men, 175 women> and found 30% of men and 49% of women reported using some form of aggression in their dating histories with a greater percentage of women engaging in severe physical aggression.)
Arias, I., & Johnson, P. (1989). Evaluations of physical aggression among intimate dyads. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 298-307. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale-CTS-with a sample of 103 male and 99 female undergraduates. Both men and women had similar experience with dating violence, 19% of women and 18% of men admitted being physically aggressive. A significantly greater percentage of women thought self-defense was a legitimate reason for men to be aggressive, while a greater percentage of men thought slapping was a legitimate response for a man or woman if their partner was sexually unfaithful.)
Bernard, M. L., & Bernard, J. L. (1983). Violent intimacy: The family as a model for love relationships. Family Relations, 32, 283-286. (Surveyed 461 college students, 168 men, 293 women, with regard to dating violence. Found that 15% of the men admitted to physically abusing their partners, while 21% of women admitted to physically abusing their partners.)
Billingham, R. E., & Sack, A. R. (1986). Courtship violence and the interactive status of the relationship. Journal of Adolescent Research, 1, 315-325. (Using CTS with 526 university students <167 men, 359 women> found Similar rates of mutual violence but with women reporting higher rates of violence initiation when partner had not--9% vs 3%.)
Bland, R., & Orne, H. (1986). Family violence and psychiatric disorder. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 129-137. (In interviews with 1,200 randomly selected Canadians <489 men, 711 women> found that women both engaged in and initiated violence at higher rates than their male partners.)
Bookwala, J., Frieze, I. H., Smith, C., & Ryan, K. (1992). Predictors of dating violence: A multivariate analysis. Violence and Victims, 7, 297-311. (Used CTS with 305 college students <227 women, 78 men> and found that 133 women and 43 men experienced violence in a current or recent dating relationship. Authors reports that "women reported the expression of as much or more violence in their relationships as men." While most violence in relationships appears to be mutual--36% reported by women, 38% by men—women report initiating violence with non violent partners more frequently than men <22% vs 17%>).
Brinkerhoff, M., & Lupri, E. (1988). Interspousal violence. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 13, 407-434. (Examined interspousal violence in a representative sample of 562 couples in Calgary, Canada. Used Conflict Tactics Scale and found twice as much wife-to-husband as husband-to-wife severe violence <10.7% vs 4.8%>. The overall violence rate for husbands was 10.3% while the overall violence rate for wives was 13.2%. Violence was significantly higher in younger and childless couples. Results suggest that male violence decreased with higher educational attainment, while female violence increased.)
Brush, L. D. (1990). Violent Acts and injurious outcomes in married couples: Methodological issues in the National Survey of Families and Households. Gender & Society, 4, 56-67. (Used the Conflict Tactics scale in a large national survey, n=5,474, and found that women engage in same amount of spousal violence as men.)
Brutz, J., & Ingoldsby, B. B. (1984). Conflict resolution in Quaker families. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46, 21-26. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale with a sample of 288 Quakers <130 men, 158 women> and found a slightly higher rate of female to male violence <15.2%> than male to female violence <14.6%>.)
Burke, P. J., Stets, J. E., & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1988). Gender identity, self-esteem, and physical and sexual abuse in dating relationships. Social Psychology Quarterly, 51, 272-285. (A sample of 505 college students <298 women, 207 men> completed the CTS. Authors reports that they found "no significant difference between men and women in reporting inflicting or sustaining physical abuse." Specifically, within a one year period they found that 14% of the men and 18% of the women reported inflicting physical abuse, while 10% of the men and 14% of the women reported sustaining physical abuse.
Carlson, B. E. (1987). Dating violence: a research review and comparison with spouse abuse. Social Casework, 68, 16-23. (Reviews research on dating violence and finds that men and women are equally likely to aggress against their partners and that "the frequency of aggressive acts is inversely related to the likelihood of their causing physical injury.")
Carrado, M., George, M. J., Loxam, E., Jones, L., & Templar, D. (1996). Aggression in British heterosexual relationships: a descriptive analysis. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 401-415. (In a representative sample of British men <n=894> and women <n=971> it was found, using a modified version of the CTS, that 18% of the men and 13% of the women reported being victims of physical violence at some point in their heterosexual relationships. With regard to current relationships, 11% of men and 5% of women reported being victims of partner aggression.)
Cascardi, M., Langhinrichsen, J., & Vivian, D. (1992). Marital aggression: Impact, injury, and health correlates for husbands and wives. Archives of Internal Medicine, 152, 1178-1184. (Examined 93 couples seeking marital therapy. Found using the CTS and other information that 71% reported at least one incident of physical aggression in past year. While men and women were equally likely to perpetrate violence, women reported more severe injuries. Half of the wives and two thirds of the husbands reported no injuries as a result of all aggression, but wives sustained more injuries as a result of mild aggression.)
Caulfield, M. B., & Riggs, D. S. (1992). The assessment of dating aggression: Empirical evaluation of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 549-558. (Used CTS with a sample of 667 unmarried college students <268 men and 399 women> and found on a number of items significantly higher responses of physical violence on part of women. For example, 19% of women slapped their male partner while 7% of men slapped their partners, 13% of women kicked, bit, or hit their partners with a fist while only 3.1% of men engaged in this activity.)
Deal, J. E., & Wampler, K. S. (1986). Dating violence: The primacy of previous experience. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 3, 457-471. (Of 410 university students <295 women, 115 men> responding to CTS and other instruments, it was revealed that 47% experienced some violence in dating relationships. The majority of experiences were reciprocal. When not reciprocal men were three times more likely than women to report being victims. Violent experiences in previous relationships was the best predictor of violence in current relationships.)
DeMaris, A. (1992). Male versus female initiation of aggression: The case of courtship violence. In E. C. Viano (Ed.), Intimate violence: interdisciplinary perspectives. (pp. 111-120). Bristol, PA: Taylor & Francis. (Examined a sample of 865 white and black college students with regard to the initiation of violence in their dating experience. Found that 218 subjects, 80 men and 118 women, had experienced or expressed violence in current or recent dating relationships. Results indicate that "when one partner could be said to be the usual initiator of violence, that partner was most often the women. This finding was the same for both black and white respondents.")
Ernst, A. A., Nick, T. G., Weiss, S. J., Houry, D., & Mills, T. (1997). Domestic violence in an inner-city ED. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 30, 190-197. (Assessed 516 patients <233 men, 283 women> in a New Orleans inner-city emergency Department with the Index of Spousal Abuse, a scale to measure domestic violence. Found that 28% of the men and 33% of the women <a nonsignificant difference>, were victims of past physical violence while 20% of the men and 19% of the women reported being current victims of physical violence. In terms of ethnicity, 82% of subjects were African-American. Authors report that there was a significant difference in the number of women vs. men who reported past abuse to the police ,19% of women, 6% of men.>)
Feather, N. T. (1996). Domestic violence, gender and perceptions of justice. Sex Roles, 35, 507-519. (Subjects <109 men, 111 women> from Adelaide, South Australia, were presented a hypothetical scenario in which either a husband or wife perpetrated domestic violence. Participants were significantly more negative in their evaluation of the husband than the wife, were more sympathetic to the wife and believed that the husband deserved a harsher penalty for his behavior.)
Fiebert, M. S., & Gonzalez, D. M. (1997). Women who initiate assaults: The reasons offered for such behavior. Psychological Reports, 80, 583-590. (A sample of 968 women, drawn primarily from college courses in the Southern California area, were surveyed regarding their initiation of physical assaults on their male partners. 29% of the women, n=285, revealed that they initiated assaults during the past five years. Women in their 20’s were more likely to aggress than women aged 30 and above. In terms of reasons, women appear to aggress because they did not believe that their male victims would be injured or would retaliate. Women also claimed that they assaulted their male partners because they wished to engage their attention, particularly emotionally.)
Fiebert, M. S. (1996). College students’ perception of men as victims of women’s assaultive behavior. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 82, 49-50. (Three hundred seventy one college students <91 men, 280 women> were surveyed regarding their knowledge and acceptance of the research finding regarding female assaultive behavior. The majority of subjects (63%) were unaware of the finding that women assault men as frequently as men assault women; a slightly higher percentage of women than men (39% vs 32%) indicated an awareness of this finding. With regard to accepting the validity of these findings a majority of subjects (65%) endorsed such a result with a slightly higher percentage of men (70% vs 64%)indicating their acceptance of this finding.)
Flynn, C. P. (1990). Relationship violence by women: issues and implications. Family Relations, 36, 295-299. (A review/analysis article that states, "researchers consistently have found that men and women in relationships, both marital and premarital engage in comparable amounts of violence." Author also writes, "Violence by women in intimate relationships has received little attention from policy makers, the public, and until recently, researchers...battered men and abusive women have receive ‘selective inattention’ by both the media and researchers.")
Follingstad, D. R., Wright, S., & Sebastian, J. A. (1991). Sex differences in motivations and effects in dating violence. Family Relations, 40, 51-57. (A sample of 495 college students <207 men, 288 women> completed the CTS and other instruments including a "justification of relationship violence measure." The study found that women were twice as likely to report perpetrating dating violence as men. Female victims attributed male violence to a desire to gain control over them or to retaliate for being hit first, while men believed that female aggression was a based on their female partner’s wish to "show how angry they were and to retaliate for feeling emotionally hurt or mistreated.")
Gelles, R. J. (1994). Research and advocacy: Can one wear two hats? Family Process, 33, 93-95. (Laments the absence of objectivity on the part of "feminist" critics of research demonstrating female perpetrated domestic violence.)
George, M. J. (1994). Riding the donkey backwards: Men as the unacceptable victims of marital violence. Journal of Men’s Studies, 3, 137-159. (A thorough review of the literature which examines findings and issues related to men as equal victims of partner abuse.)
Goldberg, W. G., & Tomlanovich, M. C. (1984). Domestic violence victims in the emergency department. JAMA, 251, 3259-3264. (A sample of 492 patients <275 women, 217 men> who sought treatment in an emergency department in a Detroit hospital were survey regarding their experience with domestic violence. Respondents were mostly African-American (78%), city dwellers (90%), and unemployed (60%). Victims of domestic violence numbered 107 (22%). While results indicate that 38% of victims were men and 62% were women this gender difference did not reach statistical signficance.
Gonzalez, D. M. (1997). Why females initiate violence: A study examining the reasons behind assaults on men. Unpublished master’s thesis, California State University, Long Beach. (225 college women participated in a survey which examined their past history and their rationales for initiating aggression with male partners. Subjects also responded to 8 conflict scenarios which provided information regarding possible reasons for the initiation of aggression. Results indicate that 55% of the subjects admitted to initiating physical aggression toward their male partners at some point in their lives. The most common reason was that aggression was a spontaneous reaction to frustration).
Hampton, R. L., Gelles, R. J., & Harrop, J. W. (1989). Is violence in families increasing? A comparison of 1975 and 1985 National Survey rates. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 969-980. (Compared a sample of 147 African Americans from the 1975 National Survey with 576 African Americans from the 1985 National Survey with regard to spousal violence. Using the CTS found that the rate of overall violence (169/1000) of husbands to wives remained the same from 1975 to 1985, while the rate of overall violence for wives to husbands increased 33% (153 to 204/1000) from 1975 to 1985. The rate of severe violence of husbands to wives decreased 43% (113 to 64/1000) from 1975 to 1985, while the rate of severe violence of wives to husbands increased 42% (76 to 108/1000) from 1975 to 1985. In 1985 the rate of abusive violence by black women was nearly 3 times greater than the rate of white women.)
Henton, J., Cate, R., Koval, J., Lloyd, S., & Christopher, S. (1983). Romance and violence in dating relationships. Journal of Family Issues, 4, 467-482. (Surveyed 644 high school students <351 men, 293 women> and found that abuse occurred at a rate of 121 per 1000 and appeared to be reciprocal with both partners initiating violence at similar rates.)
Jouriles, E. N., & O’leary, K. D. (1985). Interpersonal reliability of reports of marital violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 419-421. (Used the Conflict Tactics Scale with a sample of 65 couples in marriage therapy and 37 couples from the community. Found moderate levels of agreement of abuse between partners and similar rates of reported violence between partners.) Kalmuss, D. (1984). The intergenerational transmission of marital aggression. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46, 11-19. (In a representative sample of 2,143 adults found that the rate of husband to wife severe aggression is 3.8% while the rate of wife to husband severe aggression is 4.6%.)
Kim, K., & Cho, Y. (1992). Epidemiological survey of spousal abuse in Korea. In E. C.
Viano (Ed.) Intimate Violence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. (pp. 277-282). Bristol, PA:
Taylor and Francis. (Utilized the Conflict Tactics scale in interviews with a random sample of 1,316 married Koreans <707 women, 609 men>. Compared to findings with American couples, results indicate that Korean men were victimized by their wives twice as much as American men, while Korean women were victimized by their spouses three times as much as American women.)
Lane, K., & Gwartney-Gibbs, P.A. (1985). Violence in the context of dating and sex. Journal of Family Issues, 6, 45-49. (Surveyed 325 students <165 men, 160 women> regarding courtship violence. Used Conflict Tactics Scale and found equal rates of violence for men and women.)
Laner, M. R., & Thompson, J. (1982). Abuse and aggression in courting couples. Deviant Behavior, 3, 229-244. (Used Conflict Tactics Scales with a sample of 371 single individuals <129 men, 242 women> and found similar rates of male and female violence in dating relationships.)
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., & Vivian, D. (1994). The correlates of spouses’ incongruent reports of marital aggression. Journal of Family Violence, 9, 265-283. (In a clinic sample of 97 couples seeking marital therapy, authors found, using a modified version of the CTS, that 61% of the husbands and 64% of the wives were classified as aggressive, 25% of the husbands and 11% of the wives were identified as mildly aggressive and 36% of husbands and 53% of wives were classified as severely aggressive. Sixty-eight percent of couples were in agreement with regard to husband’s overall level of aggression and 69% of couples were in agreement on wive’s overall level of aggression. Aggression levels were identified as "nonviolent, mildly violent, or severely violent." Where there was disagreement, 65% of husbands <n=20> were under-reporting aggression and 35% of husbands <n=11> were over-reporting aggression; while 57% of wives <n=17> were under-reporting aggression and 43% of wives <n=13> were over-reporting aggression.)
Lillja, C. M. (1995). Why women abuse: A study examining the function of abused men. Unpublished master’s thesis, California State University, Long Beach. (A review of the literature examining the issue of men as victims of female assaults. Includes an original questionnaire to test assumption that women who lack social support to combat stress are likely to commit domestic violence.)
Lo, W. A., & Sporakowski, M. J. (1989). The continuation of violent dating relationships among college students. Journal of College Student Development, 30, 432-439. (A sample of 422 college students completed the Conflict Tactics Scale. Found that, "women were more likely than men to claim themselves as abusers and were less likely to claim themselves as victims.")
Macchietto, J. (1992). Aspects of male victimization and female aggression: Implications for counseling men. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 14, 375-392. (Article reviews literature on male victimization and female aggression.)
Makepeace, J. M. (1986). Gender differences in courtship violence victimization. Family Relations, 35, 383-388. (A sample of 2,338 students <1,059 men, 1,279 women> from seven colleges were surveyed regarding their experience of dating violence. Courtship violence was experienced by 16.7 % of respondents. Authors report that "rates of commission of acts and initiation of violence were similar across gender." In term of injury, both men (98%) and women (92%) reported "none or mild" effects of violence.)
Malone, J., Tyree, A., & O’Leary, K. D. (1989). Generalization and containment: Different effects of past aggression for wives and husbands. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51, 687-697. (In a sample of 328 couples it was found that men and women engaged in similar amounts of physical aggression within their families of origin and against their spouses. However, results indicate that women were more aggressive to their partners than men. Aggression was more predictable for women, i.e., if women observed parental aggression or hit siblings they were more likely to be violent with their spouses.)
Margolin, G. (1987). The multiple forms of aggressiveness between marital partners: how do we identify them? Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 13 , 77-84. (A paid volunteer sample of 103 couples completed the Conflict Tactics Scale. It was found that husbands and wives perpetrated similar amounts of violence. Specifically, the incidence of violence, as reported by either spouse was: husband to wife =39; wife to husband =41.)
Marshall, L. L., & Rose, P. (1987). Gender, stress and violence in the adult relationships
of a sample of college students. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 4,
299-316. (A survey of 308 undergraduates <152 men, 156 women> revealed that 52% expressed and 62% received violence at some point in their adult relationships. Overall, women report expressing more physical violence than men. Childhood abuse emerged as a predictor of violence in adult relationships.)
Marshall, L. L., & Rose, P. (1990). Premarital violence: The impact of family of origin violence, stress and reciprocity. Violence and Victims, 5, 51-64. (454 premarital undergraduates <249 women, 205 men> completed the CTS and other scales. Overall, women reported expressing more violence than men, while men reported receiving more violence than women. Female violence was also associated with having been abused as children.)
Mason, A., & Blankenship, V. (1987). Power and affiliation motivation, stress and abuse in intimate relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 203-210. (Investigated 156 college students <48 men, 107 women> with the Thematic Apperception Test <TAT>, Life Experiences Survey and the CTS. Found that there were no significant gender differences in terms of the infliction of physical abuse. Men with high power needs were more likely to be physically abusive while highly stressed women with high needs for affiliation and low activity inhibition were the most likely to be physically abusive. Results indicate that physical abuse occurred most often among committed couples.)
Matthews, W. J. (1984). Violence in college couples. College Student Journal, 18, 150-158. (A survey of 351 college students <123 men and 228 women> revealed that 79 <22.8 %> reported at least one incident of dating violence. Both men and women ascribed joint responsibility for violent behavior and both sexes, as either recipients or expressors of aggression, interpreted violence as a form of "love.")
Maxfield, M. G. (1989). Circumstances in supplementary homicide reports: Variety and validity. Criminology, 27, 671-695. (Examines FBI homicide data from 1976 through 1985. Reports that 9,822 wives & common law wives <57%> were killed compared to 7,433 husbands and common law husbands <43%>).
McKinney, K. (1986). Measures of verbal, physical and sexual dating violence by gender. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 14, 55-60. (Surveyed 163 college students, 78 men, 85 women, with a questionnaire designed to assess involvement in dating abuse. Found that 38% of women and 47% of men indicated that they were victims of physical abuse in dating relationships. Also found that 26% of women and 21% of men acknowledged that they physically assaulted their dating partners.)
McLeod, M. (1984). Women against men: An examination of domestic violence based on an analysis of official data and national victimization data. Justice Quarterly, 1, 171-193. (From a data set of 6,200 cases of spousal abuse in the Detroit area in 1978-79 found that men used weapons 25% of the time while female assailants used weapons 86% of the time, 74% of men sustained injury and of these 84% required medical care. Concludes that male victims are injured more often and more seriously than female victims.)
McNeely, R. L., & Mann, C. R. (1990). Domestic violence is a human issue. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 129-132. (A review article which discusses the findings that women are more prone than men to engage in severely violent acts and that "classifying spousal violence as a women’s issue rather than a human issue is erroneous.")
McNeely, R. L., & Robinson-Simpson, G. (1987). The truth about domestic violence: A falsely framed issue. Social Work, 32, 485-490. (A review article which concludes that women are as violent as men in domestic relationships.)
Mercy, J. A., & Saltzman, L. E. (1989). Fatal violence among spouses in the United States, 1975-85. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 595-599. (Examined FBI figures regarding spousal homicides. During the 10 year period from 1975 to 1985 found higher murder rates of wives than husbands <43.4% vs 56.6%>. Black husbands were at the greatest risk of victimization. Spousal homicide among blacks was 8.4 times higher than that of whites. Spouse homicide rates were 7.7 times higher in interracial marriages and the risk of victimization for both whites and blacks increased as age differences between spouses increased. Wives and husbands were equally likely to be killed by firearms <approximately 72% of the time> while husbands were more likely to be stabbed and wives more likely to bludgeoned to death. Arguments apparently escalated to murder in 67% of spouse homicides.)
Mihalic, S. W., & Elliot, D. (1997). A social learning theory model of marital violence. Journal of Family Violence, 12, 21-46. (Based on data from the National Youth Survey <see Morse, 1995> a social learning model of marital violence for men and women was tested. For men ethnicity, prior victimization, stress and marital satisfaction predicted both perpetration and experience of minor violence. With regard to serious violence ethnicity, prior victimization, marital satisfaction predicted men’s experience of marital violence, while ethnicity, class and sex role attitudes predicted the perpetration of male marital violence. For women the most important predictor of the experience of both minor and serious marital violence was marital satisfaction, class was also a predictor. With regard to female perpetrators of marital violence the witnessing of parental violence was an important predictor along with class and marital satisfaction. The social learning model worked better for women than men.)
Morse, B. J. (1995). Beyond the Conflict Tactics Scale: Assessing gender differences in partner violence. Violence and Victims, 10 (4) 251-272. (Data was analyzed from the National Youth Survey, a longitudinal study begun in 1976 with 1,725 subjects who were drawn from a probability sample of households in the United States and who, in 1976, were between the ages of 11-17. This study focused on violence as assessed by the CTS between male and female married or cohabiting respondents during survey years 1983 <n=1,496>, 1986 <n=1,384>, 1989 <n=1,436>, and 1992 <n=1,340>. For each survey year the prevalence rates of any violence and severe violence were significantly higher for female to male than for male to female. For example, in 1983 the rate of any violence male to female was 36.7, while the rate of any violence female to male was 48; in 1986, the rate of severe violence male to female was 9.5, while the rate of severe violence female to male was 22.8. In 1992, the rate of any violence male to female was 20.2, with a severe violence rate male to female of 5.7; while the rate of any violence female to male was 27.9, with a severe violence rate female to male of 13.8. Author notes that the decline in violence over time is attributed to the increase in age of the subjects. Results reveal <p. 163> that over twice as many women as men reported assaulting a partner who had not assaulted them during the study year." In 1986 about 20% of both men and women reported that assaults resulted in physical injuries. In other years women were more likely to self report personal injuries.)
Mwamwenda, T. S. (1997). Husband Battery among the Xhosa speaking people of Transkei, South Africa. Unpublished manuscript, University of Transkei, S. A. (Surveyed a sample of 138 female and 81 male college students in Transkei, South Africa, regarding their witnessing husbanding battery. Responses reveal that 2% of subjects saw their mother beat their father, 18% saw or heard female relatives beating their husbands, and 26% saw or heard female neighbors beating their husbands.)
Nisonoff, L., & Bitman, I. (1979). Spouse abuse: Incidence and relationship to selected demographic variables. Victimology, 4, 131-140. (In a sample of 297 telephone survey respondents <112 men, 185 women> found that 15.5% of men and 11.3% of women report having hit their spouse, while 18.6% of men and 12.7% of women report having been hit by their spouse.)
O’Keeffe, N. K., Brockopp, K., & Chew, E. (1986). Teen dating violence. Social Work, 31, 465-468. (Surveyed 256 high school students from Sacramento, CA., 135 girls, 121 boys, with the CTS. Ninety percent of students were juniors or seniors, the majority came from middle class homes, 94% were average or better students, and 65% were white and 35% were black, Hispanic or Asian. Found that 11.9% of girls compared to 7.4% of boys admitted to being sole perpetrators of physical violence. 17.8% of girls and 11.6% of boys admitted that they were both "victims and perpetrators" of physical violence.)
O’Leary, K. D., Barling, J., Arias, I., Rosenbaum, A., Malone, J., & Tyree, A. (1989).
Prevalence and stability of physical aggression between spouses: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 263-268. (272 couples were assessed regarding physical aggression. More women reported physically aggressing against their partners at premarriage <44% vs 31%> and 18 months of marriage <36% vs 27%>. At 30 months there was a nonsignificant but higher rate for women <32% vs 25%>.)
Plass, M. S., & Gessner, J. C. (1983). Violence in courtship relations: a southern sample. Free Inquiry in Creative Sociology, 11, 198-202. (In an opportunity sample of 195 high school and college students from a large southern city, researchers used the Conflict Tactics scale to examine courtship violence. Overall, results reveal that women were significantly more likely than men to be aggressors. Specifically, in, committed relationships, women were three times as likely as men to slap their partners, and to kick, bit or hit with the fist seven times as often as men. In casual relationships, while the gender differences weren’t as pronounced, women were more aggressive than men. Other findings reveal that high school students were more abusive than college students, and that a "higher proportion of black respondents were involved as aggressors.")
Riggs, D. S., O’Leary, K. D., & Breslin, F. C. (1990). Multiple correlates of physical aggression in dating couples. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 61-73. (Used CTS and studied 408 college students <125 men and 283 women>. Found that significantly more women <39%> than men <23%> reported engaging in physical aggression against their current partners.)
Rollins, B. C., & Oheneba-Sakyi, Y. (1990). Physical violence in Utah households. Journal of Family Violence, 5, 301-309. (In a random sample of 1,471 Utah households, using the Conflict Tactics Scale, it was found that women’s rate of severe violence was 5.3% compared to a male rate of 3.4%.)
Rouse, L. P. (1988). Abuse in dating relationships: A comparison of Blacks, Whites, and Hispanics. Journal of College Student Development, 29, 312-319. (The use of physical force and its consequences were examined in a diverse sample of college students. Subjects consisted of 130 whites <58 men, 72 women>, 64 Blacks <32 men, 32 women>, and 34 Hispanics <24 men, 10 women>. Men were significantly more likely than women to report that their partners used moderate physical force and caused a greater number of injuries requiring medical attention. This gender difference was present for Whites and Blacks but not for Hispanics.)
Rouse, L. P., Breen, R., & Howell, M. (1988). Abuse in intimate relationships. A Comparison of married and dating college students. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 414-429. (A sample of 130 married (48 men, 82 women) college students and 130 college students in dating relationships (58 men, 72 women) reported their experience of physical abuse in intimate relationships. Men were more likely to report being physically abused than women in both dating and marital relationships.)
Russell, R. J. H., & Hulson, B. (1992). Physical and psychological abuse of heterosexual partners. Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 457-473. (In a pilot study in Great Britain 46 couples responded to the Conflict Tactics Scale. Results reveal that husband to wife violence was: Overall violence= 25% and severe violence= 5.8%; while wife to husband violence was: Overall violence= 25% and severe violence=11.3%.)
Sack, A. R., Keller, J. F., & Howard, R. D. (1982). Conflict tactics and violence in dating situations. International Journal of Sociology of the Family, 12, 89-100. (Used the CTS with a sample of 211 college students, 92 men, 119 women. Results indicate that there were no differences between men and women with regard to the expression of physical violence.)
Saenger, G. (1963). Male and female relations in the American comic strip. In D. M.White & R. H. Abel (Eds.), The funnies, an American idiom (pp. 219-231). Glencoe, NY:
The Free Press. (Twenty consecutive editions of all comic strips in nine New York City newspapers in October, 1950 were examined. Results reveal that husbands were victims of aggression in 63% of conflict situations while wives were victims in 39% of situations. In addition, wives were more aggressive in 73% of domestic situations, in 10% of situations, husbands and wives were equally aggressive and in only 17% of situations were husbands more violent than wives.)
Sigelman, C. K., Berry, C. J., & Wiles, K. A. (1984). Violence in college students’ dating relationships. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 5, 530-548. (Surveyed 504 college students <116 men, 388 women> with the Conflict Tactics Scale and found that men and women were similar in the overall amount of violence they expressed but that men reported experiencing significantly more violence than women.)
Sommer, R. (1994). Male and female partner abuse: Testing a diathesis-stress model. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada. (The study was in two waves: the first was from 1989-1990 and included a random sample of 452 married or cohabiting women and 447 married or cohabiting men from Winnipeg, Canada; the second was from 1991-1992 and included 368 women and 369 men all of whom participated in the first wave. Subjects completed the CTS & other assessment instruments. 39.1% of women reported being physically aggressive (16.2% reporting having perpetrated severe violence) at some point in their relationship with their male partner. While 26.3% of men reported being physically aggressive (with 7.6% reporting perpetrating severe violence) at some point in their relationship with their female partner. Among the perpetrators of partner abuse, 34.8% of men and 40.1% of women reported observing their mothers hitting their fathers. Results indicate that 21% of "males’ and 13% of females’ partners required medical attention as a result of a partner abuse incident." Results also indicate that "10% of women and 15% of men perpetrated partner abuse in self defence.")
Sommer, R., Barnes, G. E. & Murray, R. P. (1992). Alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, personality and female perpetrated spouse abuse. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 1315-1323. (The responses from a subsample of 452 women drawn from a sample of 1,257 Winnipeg residents were analyzed. Using the CTS, it was found that 39% of women physically aggressed against their male partners at some point in their relationship. Younger women with high scores on Eysenck’s P scale were most likely to perpetrate violence. Note: The sample of subjects is the same as the one cited in Sommer’s 1994 dissertation.)
Sorenson, S. B., & Telles, C. A. (1991). Self reports of spousal violence in a Mexican-American and non-Hispanic white population. Violence and Victims, 6, 3-15. (Surveyed 1,243 Mexican-Americans and 1,149 non-Hispanic whites and found that women compared to men reported higher rates of hitting, throwing objects, initiating violence, and striking first more than once. Gender difference was significant only for non-Hispanic whites.)
Steinmetz, S. K. (1977-78). The battered husband syndrome. Victimology: An International Journal, 2, 499-509. (A pioneering article suggesting that the incidence of husband beating was similar to the incidence of wife beating.)
Steinmetz, S. K. (1980). Women and violence: victims and perpetrators. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 34, 334- 350. (Examines the apparent contradiction in women’s role as victim and perpetrator in domestic violence.)
Steinmetz, S. K. (1981). A cross cultural comparison of marital abuse. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 8, 404-414. (Using a modified version of the CTS, examined marital violence in small samples from six societies: Finland, United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, Belize, and Israel <total n=630>. Found that "in each society the percentage of husbands who used violence was similar to the percentage of violent wives." The major exception was Puerto Rico where men were more violent. Author also reports that, "Wives who used violence... tended to use greater amounts.")
Stets, J. E. & Henderson, D. A. (1991). Contextual factors surrounding conflict resolution while dating: results from a national study. Family Relations, 40, 29-40. (Drawn from a random national telephone survey, daters <n=277; men=149, women=128> between the ages of 18 and 30, who were single, never married and in a relationship during the past year which lasted at least two months with at least six dates were examined with the Conflict Tactics Scale. Findings reveal that over 30% of subjects used physical aggression in their relationships, with 22% of the men and 40% of the women reported using some form of physical aggression. Women were "6 times more likely than men to use severe aggression <19.2% vs. 3.4%>...Men were twice as likely as women to report receiving severe aggression <15.7% vs. 8%>." Also found that younger subjects and those of lower socioeconomic status <SES> were more likely to use physical aggression.)
Stets, J. E., & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1987). Violence in dating relationships, Social Psychology Quarterly, 50, 237-246. (Examined a college sample of 505 white students. Found that men and women were similar in both their use and reception of violence.
Jealousy was a factor in explaining dating violence for women.)
Stets, J. E. & Pirog-Good, M. A. (1989). Patterns of physical and sexual abuse for men and women in dating relationships: A descriptive analysis, Journal of Family Violence, 4, 63-76. (Examined a sample of 287 college students <118 men and 169 women> and found similar rates for men and women of low level physical abuse in dating relationships. More women than men were pushed or shoved <24% vs 10%> while more men than women were slapped <12% vs 8%>. In term of unwanted sexual contact 22% of men and 36% of women reported such behavior. The most frequent category for both men <18%> and women <19%> was the item, "against my will my partner initiated necking".)
Stets, J. E., & Straus, M. A. (1990). Gender differences in reporting marital violence and its medical and psychological consequences. In M. A. Straus & R. J. Gelles (Eds.), Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8,145 families (pp. 151-166). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction. (Reports information regarding the initiation of violence. In a sample of 297 men and 428 women, men said they struck the first blow in 43.7% of cases, and their partner hit first in 44.1% of cases and could not disentangle who hit first in remaining 12.2%. Women report hitting first in 52.7% of cases, their partners in 42.6% and could not disentangle who hit first in remaining 4.7%. Authors conclude that violence by women is not primarily defensive.)
Straus, M. (1980). Victims and aggressors in marital violence. American Behavioral Scientist, 23, 681-704. (Reviews data from the 1975 National Survey. Examined a subsample of 325 violent couples and found that in 49.5% of cases both husbands and wives committed at least one violent act, while husbands alone were violent in 27.7% of the cases and wives alone were violent in 22.7% of the cases. Found that 148 violent husbands had an average number of 7.1 aggressive acts per year while the 177 violent wives averaged 6.8 aggressive acts per year.)
Straus, M. A. (1993). Physical assaults by wives: A major social problem. In R. J. Gelles & D. R. Loseke (Eds.), Current controversies on family violence pp. 67-87. Newbury Park, CA:Sage. (Reviews literature and concludes that women initiate physical assaults on their partners as often as men do.) Straus, M. A. (1995). Trends in cultural norms and rates of partner violence: An update to 1992. In S. M. Stich & M. A. Straus (Eds.) Understanding partner violence: Prevalence, causes, consequences, and solutions (pp. 30-33). Minneapolis, MN: National Council on Family Relations. (Reports finding that while the approval of a husband slapping his wife declined dramatically from 1968 to 1994 <21% to 10%> the approval of a wife slapping her husband did not decline but remained at 22% during the same period. The most frequently mentioned reason for slapping for both partners was sexual unfaithfulness. Also reports that severe physical assaults by men declined by 48% from 1975 to 1992--38/1000 to 19/1000 while severe assaults by women did not change from 1975 to 1992 and remained above 40/1000. Suggests that public service announcements should be directed at female perpetrated violence and that school based programs "explicitly recognize and condemn violence by girls as well as boys.")
Straus, M. A., & Gelles, R. J. (1986). Societal change and change in family violence from 1975 to 1985 as revealed by two national surveys. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 465-479. (Reviewed data from two large sample national violence surveys of married couples and report that men and women assaulted each other at approximately equally rates,with women engaging in minor acts of violence at a higher rate than men. Sample size in 1975 survey=2,143; sample size in 1985 survey=6,002.)
Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Steinmetz, S. K. (1981). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family, Garden City, NJ: Anchor. (Reports findings from National Family Violence survey conducted in 1975. In terms of religion, found that Jewish men had the lowest rates of abusive spousal violence (1%), while Jewish women had a rate of abusive spousal violence which was more than double the rate for Protestant women <7%>, pp. 128-133. Abusive violence was defined as an "act which has a high potential for injuring the person being hit," pp.21-2.)
Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. B. (1996). The Revised Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS2). Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 283-316. (The revised CTS has clearer differentiation between minor and severe violence and new scales to measure sexual coercion and physical injury. Used the CTS2 with a sample of 317 college students <114 men, 203 women> and found that: 49% of men and 31% of women reported being a victim of physical assault by their partner; 38% of men and 30% of women reported being a victim of sexual coercion by their partner; and 16% of men and 14% of women reported being seriously injured by their partners.)
Straus, M. A., & Kaufman Kantor, G. (1994, July). Change in spouse assault rates from 1975-1992: A comparison of three national surveys in the United States. Paper presented at the Thirteenth World Congress of Sociology, Bielefeld, Germany. (Reports that the trend of decreasing severe assaults by husbands found in the National Survey from 1975 to 1985 has continued in the 1992 survey while wives maintained higher rates of assault.)
Straus, M. A., Kaufman Kantor, G., & Moore, D. W. (1994, August). Change in cultural norms approving marital violence from 1968 to 1994. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association, Los Angeles, CA. (Compared surveys conducted in 1968 <n=1,176>, 1985 <n=6,002>, 1992 <n=1,970>, and 1994 <n=524>, with regard to the approval of facial slapping by a spouse. Approval of slapping by husbands decreased from 21% in 1968 to 13% in 1985, to 12% in 1992, to 10% in 1994. The approval of slapping by wives was 22% in 1968 and has not declined over the years.)
Sugarman, D. B., & Hotaling, G. T. (1989). Dating violence: Prevalence, context, and risk markers. In M. A. Pirog-Good & J. E. Stets (Eds.) Violence in dating relationships:
Emerging social issues (pp.3-32). New York: Praeger. (Reviewed 21 studies of dating behavior and found that women reported having expressed violence at higher rates than men--329 per 1000 vs 393 per 1000.)
Szinovacz, M. E. (1983). Using couple data as a methodological tool: The case of marital violence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 45, 633-644. (Used Conflict Tactics Scale with 103 couples and found that the wives’ rates of physical aggression was somewhat higher than husbands’.)
Tang, C. S. (1994). Prevalence of spouse aggression in Hong Kong. Journal of Family Violence, 9, 347-356. (Subjects were 382 undergraduates <246 women, 136 men> at the Chinese University in Hong Kong. The CTS was used to assess students’ evaluation of their parents responses during family conflict. 14% of students reported that their parents engaged in physical violence. "Mothers were as likely as fathers to use actual physical force toward their spouses.")
Thompson Jr., E. H. (1990). Courtship violence and the male role. Men’s Studies Review, 7, (3) 1, 4-13. (Subjects were 336 undergraduates <167 men, 169 women> who completed a modified version of the CTS. Found that 24.6% of men compared to 28.4% of women expressed physical violence toward their dating partners within the past two years. Found that women were twice as likely as men to slap their partners.)
Thompson Jr., E. H. (1991). The maleness of violence in data relationships: an appraisal of stereotypes. Sex Roles, 24, 261-278. (In a more extensive presentation of his 1990 article, the author concludes that, "a more masculine and/or less feminine gender orientation and variations in relationship seriousness proved to be the two strongest predictors of both men’s and women’s involvement in courtship violence.")
Tyree, A., & Malone, J. (1991). How can it be that wives hit husbands as much as husbands hit wives and none of us knew it? Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. (Reviews the literature and discusses results from their study attempting to predict spousal violence. Found that women’s violence is correlated with a history of hitting siblings and a desire to improve contact with partners.)
Vivian, D., & Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (1996). Are bi-directionally violent couples mutually victimized? In L. K. Hamberger & C. Renzetti (Eds.) Domestic partner abuse (pp. 23-52). New York: Springer. (Authors found using a modified version of the CTS, that in a sample of 57 mutually aggressive couples, there were no significant differences between husbands’ and wives’ reports concerning the frequency and severity of assault victimization. With regard to injuries, 32 wives and 25 husbands reported the presence of a physical injury which resulted from partner aggression.)
White, J. W., & Humphrey, (1994). Women’s aggression in heterosexual conflicts. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 195-202. (Eight hundred and twenty nine women <representing 84% of entering class of women> 17 and 18 years old, entering the university for the first time completed the CTS and other assessment instruments. Results reveal that 51.5% of subjects used physical aggression at least once in their prior dating relationships and, in the past year, 30.2% reported physically aggressing against their male partners. Past use of physical aggression was the best predictor of current aggression. The witnessing and experiencing of parental aggression also predicted present aggression.)
White, J. W., & Kowalski, R. M. (1994). Deconstructing the myth of the nonaggressive woman: A feminist analysis. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 487-508. (A review and analysis which acknowledges that "women equal or exceed men in number of reported aggressive acts committed within the family." Examines a variety of explanations to account for such aggression.)
White, J. W., & Koss, M. P. (1991). Courtship violence: Incidence in a national sample of higher education students. Violence and Victims, 6, 247-256. (In a representative sample of 2,603 women and 2,105 men it was found that 37% of the men and 35% of women inflicted some form of physical aggression, while 39% of the men and 32% of the women received some form of physical aggression.)
© 1997, 1998 by Martin S. Fiebert, PhD
There can be no doubt that there is widespread misunderstanding about gender issues. Does the media bear any responsibility for correcting misperceptions, or is their role to simply report what people expect to hear?
You be the judge.
MP3 audio of an interview with TV reporter
Articles on the subject
This section is also to show how violence is not just a man trait as Special Interest Groups in Canada and the USA would have as all believe, in and out of marriage, in common law relationships, and even in divorce.
She's a murderer - end of story Donna Laframboise
Monday, October 07, 2002
After a jury convicted Aileen Wuornos of first-degree murder in January, 1992, she dismissed its members as "scumbags of America." To the media, she insisted: "I'm innocent! I was raped! I was tortured!"
The case of Wuornos, 46, who is scheduled to die by lethal injection in Florida on Wednesday, is a lurid one. Not least because she was a lesbian and a prostitute who told police she'd slept with 250,000 johns, her story has inspired books, a made-for-TV movie, a documentary film and a play. Last year, an opera based on her life premiered in San Francisco.
But the tale of Wuornos is also a cautionary one. Long a cause célèbre among feminists, prostitute groups, lesbian activists and prison reformers, she is, in fact, remarkably undeserving of such sympathy.
In total, Wuornos was convicted of murdering six men who picked her up as she hitchhiked along Florida highways in the late 1980s. (She confessed to a seventh murder, but the body was never recovered and she wasn't charged.) Wuornos insisted that, in each case, the men had become violent and she'd had no choice but to defend herself.
In the view of the activists who bought her "victim of male violence" line, the fact that she systematically robbed these men amounted to details, details. So did her previous prison time for armed robbery and her criminal record for assault, auto theft, resisting arrest, passing forged cheques and firing a firearm from a motor vehicle.
Among those who championed Wuornos is Phyllis Chesler, a prominent women's studies professor and founder of the National Women's Health Network. According to Prof. Chesler's 1994 book, Patriarchy: Notes of an Expert Witness, Wuornos' "bullets shattered the silence about violence against prostituted women, about women fighting back: and about what happens to them when they do."
In addition to raising funds to assist Wuornos' legal team, Prof. Chesler recruited expert witnesses to testify on her behalf. Although some people have dismissed Wuornos' claim of sleeping with hundreds of thousands of men as implausible (in the words of journalist Marlee MacLeod, "such a feat would require the bedding of 35 different men a day every day for 20 years") -- Prof. Chesler isn't among them. Instead, her book asks: "Was a quarter million johns all Wuornos could take before she cracked or, dare I say it, experienced a momentary flight into sanity?"
Lynda Hart, who teaches English at the University of Pennsylvania, dedicated her own book, Fatal Women, to "Aileen Wuornos and for all the women who have been vilified, pathologized, and murdered for defending themselves by whatever means necessary."
Similarly, when the California-based Center for Lesbian, Gay, Bi, Transgender Art and Culture screened a documentary about Wuornos followed by a panel discussion last year, it said the film "tells the story of how an ordinary, working-class woman's history of abuse at the hands of men propels her into extraordinary circumstances."
And to this day, the Web site for the Prison Activist Resource Center continues to insist Wuornos was condemned to death due to "sexism, anti-lesbian and anti-prostitute prejudice."
How inconvenient that Wuornos now says her earlier version of events was a bald-faced lie. "I'm coming clean and telling you that it was not self-defence," she told an Orlando television station in May, 2000. "It's seven counts of first-degree murder and seven counts of robbery." Interviewed by the Oscala Star-Banner last summer, she reiterated: "There was no self-defence in any of these cases. I just flat robbed, killed them."
Wuornos told the newspaper that, afraid she might lose her lesbian lover if she couldn't raise sufficient funds to rent an apartment, she killed her victims so they wouldn't report her to the police. "I know I'm gonna have to kill [him]," she said of the first man she murdered. "Because if I don't, there's going to be a witness. I thought, 'Well, I've always wanted to kill somebody for everything they ever done to me in my life, so here goes.' "
Those who were once so eager to believe Wuornos' "poor little me" claims, aren't much interested in her new account. Judging by the promotional material for the opera that opened a full 14 months after she publicly 'fessed up, her status as a victim remains secure.
"Is it so shocking that a woman, horribly abused as a child and later as an adult, killed in self-defence and then had knee-jerk reactions to threats of violence" this material asks. "Men returning from war call it shell-shock. Yet women have been in the trenches for centuries."
2002 National Post
Around the World Violence on Men
Saturday, 23 November, 2002, 12:00 GMT
Hong Kong women hit out
By Damian Grammaticas
BBC correspondent in Hong Kong
Hong Kong has seen a surge in cases of domestic violence committed by wives against their husbands. Government figures released this week show that the number of men who have reported being battered by their wives has tripled in the past four years. It is thought that a combination of social changes and Hong Kong's economic woes are the main causes.
The problem of husbands being battered by their wives is suddenly being taken seriously in Hong Kong. In 1998, just 39 men reported being physically abused by their wives. Last year, 179 men said they had been battered, the territory's social welfare department said. Dominance challenged
In that time there's been a serious downturn in Hong Kong's economy. Unemployment reached a record high of almost 8% last July. It has put severe financial strain on many households. Men are increasingly unable to support their wives and are seeing their dominant role in the household change. The charity Caritas has set up a refuge specially for abused husbands. Christine Chow, a social worker with the charity, says women in Chinese societies are becoming more independent and more assertive.
Many have been battered because their wives believe - or sometimes discover that - they are having extra-marital affairs
While in the past they might have expected their husband merely to provide financial support to bring up children, women now "recognize that they are not satisfied with this kind of marriage and they ask for more warm love from their husband".
"But Chinese men didn't know how to relate with their wives with passionate feelings. So the wife was dissatisfied and has become more suspicious", Christine Chow said.
Many of the men have been battered because their wives believe - or sometimes discover that - they are having extra-marital affairs.