References showing women are as likely to initiate spousal violence as are men.
(This list is by no means complete).
1. Author Unknown, "First large-scale Study Reveals Elder Abuse is Primarily by Wives Against Husbands," Marriage and Divorce Today, December 15, 1986.
2. Author Unknown, "How Can I Admit I Am a Battered Husband: Special Report," Best Magazine, April 15, 1993.
3. Author Unknown Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships Common,
New Survey Reveals" Sexuality Today Newsletter, December 22, 1986 (reporting on a report in Social Work contact Karen Brockopp) pp 2-3
4. Adler, E.S. "The Underside of married life; power,influence and violence," Women and Crime in America, Bowker L.H. ed.,Macmillan, New York, 1981.
5. Bates, R.E., "A Plea for the Battered Husband," Family Law 11:92-94, 1981.
6. Bland, R. and Orn, H., "Family Violence and Psychiatric Disorder,"Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 31(2):129-137, 1986.
7. Borowski, M., Murch, M., and Walker, V. Domestic Violence: The Community Response, Tavistock London, 1983.
8. Breen, R.N., Premarital Violence: A Study of Abuse within Dating Relationships of College Students, The University of Texas at Arlington, 1985.
9. Brinkerhoff, M. ane Lupri, E., (Interspousal Violence," Canadian Journal Of Sociology 13(4), 1988.
10. Brockopp, Karen, "Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships Common, New Survey Reveals," Sexuality Today Newsletter, pp 2-3, December 22, 1986.
11. Browne, Angela. When Battered Women Kill. Collier Macmillian, London; Free PRess, New York. 1987.
12. Brutz, J. and Ingoldsby, B.B., "Conflict Resolution in QuakerFamilies," Journal of Marriage and the Family 46:21-26, 1984.
13. Burstall, Emma, "Are Men Victims?" New Woman, August 1993. 14. Curtis, L.A., Criminal violence: National patterns and behavior,Lexington Books, Lexington MA, 1974.
15. Daly, M. & Wilson, M. "Parent-Offspring Homicides in Canada, 1974-1983" Science v. 242, pp. 519-524, 1988
16. Edwards, Joe, "Men Get Battered, Too," Chat Magazine, April 18, 1992.
17. Ensminger-Vanfossen, B., "Intersexual violence in Monroe County, New York," Victimology 4(2): 299-305, 1979.
18. Farrell, Warren Why Men Are the Way They Are McGraw-Hill, New York, 1986, p. 231
19. Garcia, Jane "The Cost of Escaping Domestic Violence" Los Angeles Times May 6, 1991.
20. Gelles, R.J. "The violent home: A study of physical aggression between husbands and wives" Sage, Beverly Hills, CA, 1974.
21. Gelles, Richard J., "Domestic Criminal Violence," in Wolfgang, Marvin E., Criminal Violence, Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1982, pg. 201-235.
22. Giles, Sims, J., Wife Battering : a Systems Theory Approach, Guilford Press, New York, 1983.
23. George,M.J. Riding the Donkey Backwards: Men as the Unacceptable Victims of Marital Violence. IN PRESS The Journal of Men's Studies Vol 3 No 2 (November 1994)
24. Greenfield, Margaret, "Beaten Husbands," Women's Post, p. 2, July 8,1992.
25. Jones, Anne. Women Who Kill. Fawcett Crest, Ballantine Books, New York. 1981. A desription of battered women who kill in “self-defense”.
26. Jouriles, E.N. and O'Leary, K.D., (1985) "Interpersonal reliability of reports of marital violence," Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 53:419-421, 1985.
27. Kirsta, Alix, "6 Ft., Macho, and Beaten by his Wife," Sunday Times, December 10, 1989.
28. Kirsta, Alix, "Could You Batter Him," New Woman, January 1991. 29. Langley, Roger & Levy, Richard C. Wife Beating:The Silent Crisis, Pocket Books, New York 1977.
30. McLeod, M., "Women Against Men: An Examination of Domestic Violence Based on an Analysis of Official Data and National Victimization Data," Justice Quarterly, 1(2):171-193, 1984.
31. McNeely, R. L., and Robinson-Simpson, G., "The Truth about Domestic Violence: A Falsely Framed Issue, Gender Sanity, University Press of America, 1988.
32. McNeely, R.L.. and Robinson-Simpson, G(1987)The Truth about Domestic Violence: A Falsely Framed Issue.Social Work32(6)485-490
Excerpt from the text of the book: "Yet, while repeated studies consistently show that men are victims of domestic violence as often as are women, `both the lay public and many professionals regard a finding of no sex difference in rates of physical aggression among intimates as surprising, if not unreliable,' the stereotype being that men are aggressive `and women are exclusively victims.' " 33. Mercy J.A. and Saltzman L.E., "Fatal violence among spouses in the United States, 1976-85," American Journal of Public Health 79(5):595-599, 1989.
34. Mercy JA., Saltzman LE., Intentional Injury Section, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333. May 1989. "Fatal violence among spouses in the United States," 1976-85. American Journal of Public Health. 79(5).595-9 May 1989.
35. Nagi, Saad, "Child Maltreatment in the United States." Columbia University Press, New York, p. 47, 1977.
36. Nisonoff, L. & Bitman, I "Spouse Abuse: Incidence and Relationship to Selected Demographic Variables" Victimology 4, 1979, pp. 131140
37. O'Leary K. Daniel., Barling J., Arias, Ilena, Rosenbaum Alan, Malone J., and Tyree A., "Prevalence and stability of physical aggression between spouses: a longitudinal analysis," Journal of Consulting &Clinical Psychology. 57(2):263-268, 1989.
This report notes that 31% of men and 44% of women in a study reported that they aggressed against their partner in the year before marriage. Eighteen months after marriage, 27% of the men and 36% of the women reported being violent towards their partner.
38. O'Leary, K. Daniel; Arias, Ilena; Rosenbaum, Alan & Barling, Julian "Premarital Physical Aggression" State University of New York at Stony Brook & Syracuse University
39. Pagelow, M.D., "The 'Battered Husband Syndrome': Social problem or much ado about little?" Marital Violence, Monograph 31, Sociological Review Johnosn, N. and Routledge, Kegan Paul eds., London, pp.172-195, 1985.
40. Rooke, Margaret, "Violence in the Home" Radio Times 16-22 p.8, March 1991.
41. Saenger, G. "Male and female relation in the American comic strips" in The funnies: An American idiom M. White & R.H. Abel editors, The Free Press, Glencoe IL, 1963, p. 219-223
42. Saunders, D.G., "When battered women use violence: Husband abuse or self defense," Violence and Victims 1:47-60, 1986.
43. Scvanzoni J., Sex Roles, Women's work and Marital conflict, Lexington Books, Lexington, MA, 1978.
44. Sexuality Today Newsletter "New Survey Reveals Violence in Adolescent Dating Relationships Common" December 22, 1986(reporting on a report in Social Work contact Karen Brockopp) pp 2-3.
45. Shupe, A., "The Violent Woman", Violent Men Violent Couples, Stacey and Hazzlewood eds., Lexington Books, 1986.
46. Smith, Angela, "Do Only Women Bleed?" Guardian, Women's section p. 1, July 15, 1992.
47. Smith, S., Baker, D., Buchan, A. & Bodiwala, G., "Adult Domestic Violence," Health Trends 24:97-99, 1992.
48. Stacey, Sarah, and Cantacuzino, Maria, "And Then She Hit Me," Esquire, p. 84, 1993.
49. Statistical Abstract of the United States 1987 table 277
50. Steinmetz, Suzanne K. "The Battered Husband Syndrome" Victimology 2, 1977- 1978, p. 499
51. Steinmetz, Suzanne K. "Wifebeating, husband beating - a comparison of the use of physical violence between spouses to resolve marital fights in Roy, M. (Ed.) Battered Women New York Van Nostrand Rheinhold 1977 pp 63-72
52. Steinmetz, Suzanne K. The cycle of violence: Assertive, aggressive and abusive family interaction Praeger Press, New York, 1977 53. Steinmetz, Suzanne K. and Lucca, Joseph S. "Husband Battering" in
Handbook of Family Violence Van Hasselt, Vincent B. et al. editors, Plenum Press, New York 1988, p. 233-246. Drs. Steinmetz and Lucca note that "the greatest increase in female criminal activity parallels the increasing number of women who hold positions of trust in the business world." This report should not be seen simply as an indicator of female aggressiveness, but also as an indicator that there is something about being in "positions of trust" that enables, if you will, aggressiveness. The article contains a lengthy discussion of the use of battered husbands in humor.
54. Steinmetz, Suzanne K., "Women and Violence: Victims and Perpetrators," American Journal of Psychotherapy 34(3): 334-350, 1980.
55. Straus M.A., "Husband abuse and the woman offender are important problems," Current Controversies on Family Violence, Gelles R.J& D. Loseke eds., Sage Women's Educational Press, Atlanta, 1993.
56. Straus, M., "Wife Beating: How Common and Why?," Victimology 2:443-458, 1977-78.
57. Straus, M., and Gelles, R., "Societal Change and Change in Family Violence from 1975 to 1985 as Revealed by Two National Surveys," Journal of Marriage and the Family 48:465-479, 1986.
58. Strauss, M.A., Gelles, R.J., and Steinmetz, S.K. Behind closed doors: Violence in American families. Doubleday, New York, 1980. Followup work "Intimate Violence"
59. Szinovacz, M.E., "Using couple data as a methodological tool : The case of marital violence," Journal of Marriage and the Family 45(3):633-644, 1983.
60. Wilkerson, Isabel "Clemency Granted to 25 Women Convicted for Assault or Murder" New York Times December 21, 1990
61. Wilt, G.M. & Bannon, J.D. Violence and the police: Homicides, assaults and disturbances The Police Foundation, Washington DC, 1976
62. Wolff, Isobell, "Beyond the Rolling Pin: Domestic Violence and the Other Side," Spectator Magazine, p. 22, November 28, 1992.
63. Wolfgang Marvin E., Patterns in Criminal Homicide. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. 1958. Also (*Curtis 1974), (*Mercy&Saltzman 1989).